July 2024

18/07/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Telescopium (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Connecting Exoplanet Properties to Planet Formation: A New Paradigm Emerges
Ralph Pudritz (McMaster University)

Abstract

One of the great challenges of exoplanetary astrophysics is to understand how the observed properties of exoplanets – their masses, orbital characteristics, bulk properties and atmospheric compositions – are connected to planet formation in their host protoplanetary disks. Recent observations of water and other molecules in both young protoplanetary disks as well the atmospheres of evolved exoplanets by JWST, shed new light on this fundamental question.   The evidence indicates that the composition of planets cannot be understood as a consequence of their formation at one place in the disk. It is well known that planet-disk interaction leads to planetary migration - and this means that forming planets will accrete pebbles, planetesimals, and gas with a wide range of chemical compositions as they move through their evolving disks.  In this talk, I will summarize these latest observational and theoretical advances and argue that these point towards the emergence of a new paradigm for planet formation. One essential process that controls disk chemistry, evolution, and planetary migration is how angular momentum is transported in disks. Recent theoretical work favours disk winds (observed as ubiquitous jets and outflows in protostellar systems) as carrying it away from disks, rather than disk turbulence carrying it outward to large disk radii (observations indicate that disk turbulence is hard to detect, or absent). I will discuss our own recent contributions to disk wind driven evolution and its effects on planet formation by confronting our theoretical planetary populations with the observations.

11/07/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — The circum/inter-galactic medium in emission around high-z quasars
Fabrizio Arrigoni Battaia (MPA)

Abstract

Quasars – active super-massive black holes at the center of galaxies – are the brightest non-transient sources in the Universe and are powered by intense accretion episodes. The copious radiation emitted by a luminous quasar can, like a flashlight, illuminate the surrounding material, allowing us to directly study structures extending to circumgalactic (~100 kpc) and intergalactic (Mpc) scales. In this talk I will quickly report on some of the latest results of the QSOMUSEUM survey which comprises, at the moment, VLT/MUSE observations for 120 z~3 single quasar fields and 8 quasar pairs. Using high-resolution cosmological simulations I will then discuss the importance of quasar outflows and radiation in explaining the emission we see on circumgalactic scales, and show how the observation of extended emission around quasars not only give us access to the gas properties, but also to the properties of the central engine itself (black-hole mass, accretion rate, ionization cone opening angle).

04/07/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — The circumgalactic medium: What is it and how does it affect the evolution of galaxies?
Claude-Andre Faucher-Giguere (Northwestern University)
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Abstract

While galaxies stand out as the brightest lights observed by telescopes, most of the atoms in the Universe are in diffuse gas outside of galaxies. The circumgalactic medium, or CGM, refers to the massive gas halos surrounding galaxies. In addition to containing large quantities of matter, the CGM is where some of the main processes driving and regulating galaxy formation operate. This talk will begin with a broad introduction to the CGM, then focus on recent results from our group concerning a key phase transition in the CGM, known as "virialization," during which the CGM transforms from cold to hot. I will discuss theoretical predictions, based on a combination of analytic modeling and simulations, for how the CGM virializes. I will also summarize results on the connections between CGM virialization and the evolution of galaxies, including the transition from bursty to steady star formation and the emergence of disk galaxies similar to the Milky Way. The predicted bursty phase of star formation enhances the abundance of bright galaxies and, in our simulations, plays a critical role in explaining the luminosity function measured by the James Webb Space Telescope at very high redshift.

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June 2024

27/06/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Telescopium (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — SRG/eROSITA: highlights from the all-sky survey first data release
Andrea Merloni (MPE)
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Abstract

Wide-area, sensitive X-ray surveys map the hot and energetic Universe to reveal key processes across many areas of astrophysics and Cosmology, including the most massive collapsed structures of the Universe
(clusters and groups of galaxies), the hot ISM and CGM of the Milky Way and the 
Supernova remnants that energise it, the atmospheres of neutron stars, 
the magnetic coronae of accretion discs around black holes, and many more.
eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array), the 
soft X-ray instrument on the Russian-German Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma 
(SRG) mission  is expanding the horizon of 
X-ray astronomy and delivering large legacy samples thanks to its high sensitivity, large field of view, high
spatial resolution and survey efficiency. I will present an overview of the instrument capabilities, the current status of the mission, and a few early science results from the survey program selected from the first data release.

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13/06/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — The atmospheres of discs and planets
Barbara Ercolano (USM, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich)
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Abstract

The gaseous atmospheres of extrasolar planets and those of their birth environments, the protoplanetary discs, hold the key to understanding the observed diversity of these distant worlds and might provide important insights on fundamental questions, including habitability. 

In this talk I will review the results of recent efforts to connect the protoplanetary disc evolution, driven by their central star, to the formation of planets. Special attention will be given to outflows and what can be/ has been learnt from them. Some of the unanswered questions, rely on the understanding of the chemical composition of atmospheric gas, particularly with regards to important species like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, that control the thermodynamics in the far ultra-violet regime and play an important role in the coupling of the atmospheric gas to magnetic fields. The same molecules may play a very important role in the evolution of planetary atmospheres. Current and future efforts to constrain their abundances in discs and planets will also be reviewed.

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May 2024

23/05/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — The colourful past and dark side of galaxies unveiled through population-dynamics of their stars
Glenn van de Ven (University of Vienna)
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Abstract

Driven by gravity, galaxies continuously grow through accretion of smaller systems. Stellar streams are nice illustrations of this hierarchical build-up, but the accreted stars quickly disperse. I will present advanced dynamical models that can convert the observed positions and velocities of stars to phase-space quantities like energy and angular momentum which remain largely conserved. In addition, these models can include the observed ages and chemical properties of stars which are also conserved. The resulting population-dynamical models allow us then to uncover even those accretion events which are now fully dispersed. At the same time, these models also accurately constrain the total mass distribution, including a central black hole and dark matter halo.


I will illustrate how these models make optimally use of observations to unveil the dark side and colour past of galaxies: from accurate measurements of their central black holes and extended dark halos, to unveiling the formation history of their disks, to uncovering ancient massive mergers and accreted satellite galaxies. By the end, I aim to have demonstrated that these models provide a unique bridge between the studies of resolved stars in the Milky Way and integrated-light of high(er)-redshift galaxies. Together with direct coupling to state-of-the-art galaxy formation simulations, these population-dynamical models enable us to uncover the hierarchical build-up of galaxies in a cosmological context.

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16/05/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — New Results from the Abundance of SPT Clusters with DES and HST Weak Lensing
Sebastian Bocquet (LMU)
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Abstract

The abundance of massive halos (and of the galaxy clusters they host) has long been recognized as an extremely promising probe of the large-scale structure of the universe. Over the past decade, tremendous progress was made, notably thanks to the availability of high-resolution surveys of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), of high-quality measurements of gravitational lensing, and of advanced numerical simulations.

The sample of galaxy clusters selected by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) in the CMB now exceeds a thousand objects. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) allows for measurements of gravitational lensing for almost 700 sample clusters with exquisit control over systematic uncertainties. We supplement this dataset with 39 lensing measurements of high-redshift clusters with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The joint analysis of the cluster abundance and weak-lensing mass calibration provides tight cosmological constraints that are competitive with other major probes.

In my talk, I will review the SPT cluster cosmology and mass calibration program. I will focus on the latest SPT + DES Y3 + HST analysis and present new cosmological constraints.

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02/05/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — DESI Progress and Results
Shaun Cole (Durham University)
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Abstract

The main DESI redshift surveys have now collected 3 years of data and analysis of the Year-1 data set is almost complete. While concentrating  on the analysis of the Bright Galaxy Survey (BGS) in which I'm most directly involved  I plan to review the main cosmological results from other components of DESI. The BGS is a magnitude-limited (r<19.5) galaxy redshift survey and so rather like the SDSS main survey but about two magnitudes deeper. As such it is not only a useful cosmological probe but also a powerful probe of the local galaxy population and so a constraint on galaxy formation and the galaxy dark matter connection. I will present an analysis of how galaxy clustering depends on galaxy properties and the galaxy luminosity function depends on environment.

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April 2024

25/04/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Massive Black Holes: Insights from Cosmological Simulations
Tiziana Di Matteo (Carnegie Mellon University)
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Abstract

The enigmatic journey of massive black holes, from the formation of a seed population in the early universe to their subsequent growth and mergers represents a vastly multi-scale phenomenon deeply intertwined with the process of galaxy formation. In this talk, I discuss the insights gleaned from cutting-edge cosmological simulations. These simulations not only provide some clues into the elusive population of Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBHs) but also shed light on some of the largest black holes in our Universe.

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18/04/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Early formation of galaxy discs
Filippo Fraternali (Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen)
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Abstract

After decades of being mostly confined to the local Universe, the study of gas dynamics in galaxies, via a variety of emission-line gas tracers, has now become a key tool of investigation across cosmic time. The rotation of the gas allows us to trace the distribution of matter, quantify the mass and shape of the dark matter halos and study galaxy scaling relations. At the same time, gas turbulence reveals the effects of stellar feedback and disc instabilities and provides clues on the formation of the stellar thin/thick discs. I will present results on high-z rotation curves and velocity dispersions obtained through 3D reconstruction techniques of the emission-line datacubes. I will focus on ALMA observations of galaxies at z~4-5 observed in [CII] emission lines, extending to intermediate redshifts (z=1-4) using mostly CO lines. These data reveal fast rotation and relatively-low gas velocity dispersions leading to typical V/sigma values of order 10, similar to those of nearby spiral galaxies. Often, the fast rotations show the presence of mass concentrations that suggest a quick formation of stellar bulges, while the low velocity dispersions indicate that the gas turbulence is mostly fed by supernova feedback. I will discuss how the widespread presence of such “cold” discs at z~4-5 and their properties are changing our understanding of galaxy formation at early times.

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11/04/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Exploring SMBH-Galaxy Coevolution with GRAVITY+
Taro Shimizu (MPE)

Abstract

Near-infrared interferometry is a unique tool to study the inner sub-parsec structure of AGN which is inaccessible with current single dish telescopes. With VLTI/GRAVITY, we can now spatially resolve not just the hot dust continuum on milliarcsecond scales through imaging but also the broad-line region on microarcsecond scales through spectro-astrometry. In this talk, I will review the latest results from our observations of local AGN with GRAVITY where we have mapped the kinematics of the BLR in seven nearby AGN, measured sizes of the hot dust for sixteen AGN, and reconstructed images for two AGN. BLR kinematics have allowed us to independently measure the BLR size and supermassive black hole mass where we begin to find a departure from the radius-luminosity relation at high luminosity. I will give an overview of the GRAVITY+ upgrades that will allow for direct black hole mass measurements out to high redshift and therefore a precise tracing of supermassive black hole-galaxy coevolution through cosmic time.  With the addition of wide-angle off-axis fringe tracking during the first phase of GRAVITY+, we have already pushed observations out to cosmic noon. I will show initial results from this program, including the first dynamical black hole mass measurement at high redshift which reveals an undermassive black hole that is accreting at super-Eddington rates.

March 2024

21/03/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Measuring the stellar initial mass function
Andrew Hopkins (Macquarie University)
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Abstract

The birth of stars and the formation of galaxies are cornerstones of modern astrophysics. While much is known about how galaxies globally and their stars individually form and evolve, one fundamental property that affects both remains elusive. This is problematic because this key property, the birth mass distribution of stars, referred to as the stellar initial mass function, is a key tracer of the physics of star formation that underpins almost all of the unknowns in galaxy and stellar evolution. It is perhaps the greatest source of systematic uncertainty in star and galaxy evolution. The past two decades have seen a growing variety of methods for measuring or inferring the initial mass function. This range of approaches and evolving definitions of the quantity being measured has in turn led to conflicting conclusions regarding whether or not the initial mass function is universal. Here I review this growing wealth of approaches, and highlight the importance of considering potential initial mass function variations, reinforcing the need to carefully quantify the scope and uncertainties of measurements. I present a new framework to aid the discussion of the initial mass function and promote clarity in the further development of this fundamental field.

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14/03/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Stars stripped in binaries: from prediction to discovery and beyond
Ylva Götberg (Institute of Science and Technology Austria)
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Abstract

A third of all massive stars are predicted to lose their hydrogen-rich envelope through mass transfer or common envelope ejection initiated by a binary companion star. As a result, the hot and compact helium core is exposed. These "stripped stars" are the direct progenitors of hydrogen-poor supernovae and merging binary neutron stars, but they are also so hot that they should boost the ionizing output from bursty star-forming galaxies.

Despite their importance, stripped stars remained, until recently, observationally unconfirmed since their predicted existence over half a century ago. We found the first set of stripped stars by combining ultraviolet and optical photometry with follow-up spectroscopy in the Magellanic Clouds. By fitting their spectra with a new grid of models, we could measure stellar properties and thus confirm that the predictions from binary evolution models are broadly consistent with observed stripped stars.

This discovery is a step towards understanding the role of interacting binaries in stellar populations. This is evidenced, for example, by the highly ionized gas surrounding some of these systems, shining brightly in O III and Balmer spectral lines. Directly constraining the ionizing emission and hardness of stripped stars, along with the typical gas density surrounding the stars, could lead to estimates of the escape fraction for different star types and the disentangling of stellar populations in unresolved galaxies.

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07/03/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Patience is a virtue: The 15-year NANOGrav Gravitational Wave Results
Scott Ransom (NRAO, Charlottesville)
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Abstract

This past summer, the pulsar timing array community announced strong evidence for the presence of a stochastic background of nanoHertz frequency gravitational waves. This has been the primary goal of the community for the past two decades, and it took thousands of hours of telescope time, over 500,000 pulse arrival times from ~70 millisecond pulsars, and a highly sophisticated and very computationally demanding analysis effort to accomplish. While we can't yet say for certain what is causing the gravitational waves, our best guess is a population of slowly merging super-massive black hole binaries throughout the universe. But it is possible that the signal also heralds new physics. So what does it all mean and what are we expecting next? And what other cool things can we do with all of this high-precision pulsar data?

 

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February 2024

29/02/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Low mass galaxies and their dark matter halos: lessons learned from satellite galaxies and the dynamics of globular clusters
Shany Danieli (Princeton University)
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Abstract

Found to be among the most dark matter-dominated systems discovered to date, low-mass galaxies provide stringent tests of our cold dark matter model on small scales. Because they are intrinsically faint and difficult to identify and characterize, studies thus far have primarily focused on the population of dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way. I will present novel observations of low-mass galaxies beyond our local galactic neighbourhood, uncovering their considerable diverseness and introducing new astrophysical puzzles. I will describe a new framework for obtaining constraints on the distribution of dark matter in low-mass galaxies by leveraging their globular cluster systems and dynamical considerations. I will also present new constraints on the statistical mapping between satellite galaxies and their host dark matter halos, utilizing a unique sample of satellite galaxies in the Local Volume from the ELVES survey. I will conclude by discussing ongoing and future surveys essential in mapping the census and properties of the general population of low-mass galaxies.

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22/02/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — The Galactic centre on “large” scales
Mattia Sormani (University Of Surrey)
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Abstract

I will give an introduction to the structure and dynamics of the central 3 kpc of the Milky Way. This region hosts a complex star-forming ecosystem that is continually exchanging matter with the rest of the Galaxy through inflows and outflows. The Galactic bar efficiently transports gas from the Galactic disc towards the centre at a rate of ~1 Msun/yr, creating a ring-like accumulation of molecular gas known as the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) at a radius R=120pc. The CMZ is the local analog of the star-forming nuclear rings commonly found at the centre of external barred galaxies, and forms by a process similar to the one that creates gaps in Saturn’s rings. Once in the ring, approximately 10% of the gas is consumed by its intense star formation activity. Star formation does not occur uniformly throughout the CMZ ring, but is more likely to occur near the sites where the bar-driven inflow is deposited. The star formation rate of the CMZ varies as a function of time, but it is currently debated whether this is due to an internal feedback cycle or to external variations in the bar-driven inflow rate. The radius of the CMZ gas ring slowly grows over Gyr timescales, and its star formation activity builds up a flattened stellar system known as the nuclear stellar disc, which currently dominates the gravitational potential of the Milky Way at 30pc<R<300pc. Most of the gas not consumed by star formation in the CMZ is ejected perpendicularly to the plane by a Galactic outflow powered either by stellar feedback and/or AGN activity, while a tiny fraction continues moving radially inward towards the circum-nuclear disc at R=few pc, and eventually into the sphere of influence of the central black hole SgrA* at R<1pc.

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15/02/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — From Pebbles to Planets: New Frontiers in Planet Formation
Richard Teague (MIT)
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Abstract

There has been a tremendous leap forward in our understanding of the formation of planetary systems thanks to substantial advances in our observational capabilities. Observatories like ALMA are routinely revealing the presence of complex structures in the gas and dust which are forming planets, much of which has been associated with young, embedded protoplanets. Such observations are unpinning sigificant developments in the theory of how, and from what, planets form. In this talk I will provide an overview of our current understanding of the physical, chemical and dynamical structure of protoplanetary disks with a particular focus on how we are beginning to detect the presence of young planets, only recently formed. I will present new results from the exoALMA program, an ALMA Large Program that is undertaking an extensive planet-hunting campaign in the sub-mm, and the related projects on facilities like JWST, VLT and Magellan. To conclude, I will discuss future facilitiies, and detail how, in the coming decade, we will begin to push into the terrestrail planet forming regions of these disks and understand the formation of Earth-like planets. 

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08/02/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Chemical Complexity from Star-forming Regions to Comets
Maria N. Drozdovskaya (University of Bern)
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Abstract

Low-mass star-forming regions are blooming in emission from abundant complex organic molecules (carbon-containing molecules of at least 6 atoms). Unbiased spectral surveys and the advent of state-of-the-art interferometers like ALMA have tremendously expanded our understanding of the chemical composition of protostellar regions. The earliest stage of star formation, the prestellar core, is the birthplace of complex organic molecules under interstellar physical conditions. Upon gravitational collapse, a young protostar with a protoplanetary disk is formed. The concurrent heating and UV irradiation boost the production of complex organics. It is thought that the largest reservoir of complex organics is in interstellar ices, which can now be directly probed by the JWST. Meanwhile, thermal desorption in the warm inner regions around protostars allows us to readily observe such species in the gas with ALMA. In the outer parts of a protoplanetary disk, solid complex organics become integrated into forming comets and planets.

Our Solar System was once too an infant low-mass protostar embedded in its natal cloud. The most pristine relics of this time that survive to this day are comets. Recently, cometary science experienced a significant boost as a result of the large wealth of data coming from the ESA Rosetta mission that escorted comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for two years. In my talk, I will highlight recent observational investigations of complex organics from cores to protostars, including studies of methanol isotopologs in the prestellar core L1544 and the comprehensive chemical inventory of the low-mass star-forming region IRAS 16293-2422. I will present the chemical trail that connects the earliest phases of star formation with comets in our Solar System. I will address the story told by the comet’s volatile inventory and isotopic ratios about the connections with protostellar and prestellar phases, thereby bring forward the idea that comets of our Solar System reflect to a degree the complex organic composition of the innate core that birthed our Sun.

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January 2024

25/01/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Exoplanet adventures in the 2020s and beyond
Jayne Birkby (Oxford University)

Abstract

In our quest to find other Earths, we’ve uncovered an extraordinarily diverse set of outcomes of the star-planet formation process, far beyond our imagination, and yet we have still barely scratched the surface of what we can learn about this eclectic zoo of other worlds. While exoplanet hunters continue the search for the nearest Earth twins, our last decade of study has pushed to understand the atmospheres of these new planets, and how their climate physics and chemistry respond to the environment created by their parents stars. In this talk, I will demonstrate how new instrumentation, high in resolution, precision, and contrast is pushing our understanding of exoplanet atmospheres to increasing detail. I’ll discuss studies of gas giants as well as the crucial preparation we are doing to find biosignatures on nearby rocky worlds with the Extremely Large Telescopes. Finally, I will demonstrate our recent work on techniques to map out storms in giant exoplanet atmospheres, and end by discussing the next phase of exoplanet observations that aim to reveal the surface interactions of rocky exoplanets.

18/01/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — A foray into the geochemistry of fossil and extant exoplanets
Stephen J. Mojzsis (Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Budapest)
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Abstract

Unlike the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram for stars, there remains no formal classification for exoplanets composed of varying proportions of fluids, rock+metals and ice. Still, as with stars, planetary mass and composition – expressed in geochemical and cosmochemical terms – mold bulk physical characteristics and evolutionary paths. Here, I show how combining geodynamics with astrophysical observations provides insights into rocky exoplanet characteristics such as silicate mantle viscosity and intrinsic heat production vs. age. I test the general predictability of such geochemical models with an example from recent atmospheric retrieval data collected from an ultra-hot Jupiter in the WASP-76 system. I conclude with a geochemical evaluation of spectral data of moderately volatile vs. moderately refractory lithophile elements reported from some polluted white dwarfs and what this means for the ultimate fates of rocky planets around Sun-like stars

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11/01/24 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Dynamical accretion flows, magnetic field and density structure in high-mass star formation
Henrik Beuther (MPIA, Heidelberg)
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Abstract

How much do different physical processes in the interstellar medium -- in particular dynamics, magnetic field and density structure -- influence the formation of massive stars? I will show observational results covering scales of dynamical cloud-cloud collisions to collapsing star-forming regions. Employing studies from mm wavelengths (SMA, NOEMA, ALMA, 30m) to the mid-infrared (JWST), the characterisation of magnetic field, density structure and accretion processes will be discussed.

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