Messenger No. 10 (September 1977)

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1-2 (PDF)
A. Terzan
The Bright Cloud B in Sagittarius

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10....1T
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Terzan, A.
AA(Observatoire de Lyon, France)
Abstract:
A detailed study of stars in the direction of the centre of the Milky Way is underway at the Observatoire de Lyon in France by Dr. A. Terzan and his collaborators. Important material has been obtained with the ESO telescopes during the past years. Dr. Terzan outlines his programme:
1-1 (PDF)
ESO
ESO's Fifteenth Anniversary (1962-1977)

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10Q...1.
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
Abstract:
ESO's Fifteenth Anniversary (1962-1977)
1-1 (PDF)
ESO
3.6 m Telescope Receives First Visiting Astronomers

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10R...1.
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
Abstract:
The 3.6 m telescope is now ready to receive the first visiting astronomers. For most astronomers in Europe, this wi 11 be the first time they have access to a large telescope and it is therefore of some interest to learn how European astronomers expect to make use of their new instrument.
2-3 (PDF)
L. Kohoutek, S. Laustsen
The Exciting Star of Planetary Nebula NGC3132

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10....2K
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Kohoutek, L.; Laustsen, S.
AA(Hamburg Observatory) AB(ESO)
Abstract:
The term "Planetary Nebula" was coined when 18th-century astronomers discovered celestial objects that looked similar to the solar-system planets in their small-aperture telescopes. We now know that these nebulae have their origin in stellar outbursts (explosions) during which a star throws away consecutive shells of matter which afterwards expand around the central star. Spectroscopic analyses of the nebulae indicate that these stars are intense sources of ultraviolet radiation that excite the atoms in the nebulae. This is almost always confirmed when direct spectroscopic observations are made of the stars situated at the centres of the planetary nebulae: they are exceedingly hot, often the surface temperature is of the order of 100,000 °K.
3-4 (PDF)
R. N. Wilson
3.6 m Telescope: Excellent Optical Quality

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10....3W
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Wilson, R. N.
AA(ESO Optics Section)
Abstract:
The preliminary tests of the optieal quality of the 3.6 m prime and Cassegrain foei opties have now been anaIyzed. They show that the large ESO teleseope is optieally nearly perfeet and that the design speeifieations have been met, probably even signifieantly surpassed. The tests were earried out by the ESO Opties Seetion (in partieular Daniel Enard, Franeis Franza, Mauriee Le Luyer, Patriek Monnerat and Raymond Wilson) and the present report was eompiled by the leader, Dr. R. N. Wilson:
5-7 (PDF)
A. Sandqvist
New Southern Dark Dust Clouds Discovered on the ESO (B) Atlas

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10....5S
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Sandqvist, A.
AA(Observatory of the Stockholm University)
Abstract:
Dr. Aage Sandqvist from the Observatory of the Stockholm University has recently compiled a list of dark dust clouds seen on the ESO (B) Atlas. It is less than ten years since radio astronomers discovered the presence of organic molecules in dark clouds of interstellar matter, and Dr. Sandqvist's list now helps observers to locate the clouds in the southern Milky Way. Radio in vestigations of these ha ve already been started and will not only increase our knowledge of the distribution of the organic molecules but also give better insight into the kinematics (velocities) of the nearby interstellar matter. Dr. Sandqvist explains how this is done:
7-7 (PDF)
ESO
Announcement of an ESO Conference - "Optical Telescopes of the Future"

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10Q...7.
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
7-7 (PDF)
ESO
Personnel Movements

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10R...7.
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
8-9 (PDF)
A. Duus, B. Newel
New Southern Groups and Clusters of Galaxies

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10....8D
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Duus, A.; Newel, B.
AA(Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatory in Australia) AB(Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatory in Australia)
Abstract:
The first deep photographic atlas of the southern sky, the ESO (B) Atlas, is now virtually complete. It has already been extensively used by many southern observers, and lists of various objects are being compiled. Drs. Alan Duus and Barry Newell of the Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatory in Australia have identified a large number of new clusters of galaxies which will no doubt soon be studied in closer detail. Excluding the quasars, faint galaxy clusters are the most distant known objects in the universe and are therefore of great importance for the study of its large-scale structure. Drs. Duus and Newell report:
References:
de Vaucouleurs, G. 1956, Memoirs of the Commonwealth Observatory (Mt. Stromlo), No. 13.
de Vaucouleurs, G. 1975, in Galaxies and the Universe, vol. 9 of Stars and Stellar Systems, ed. A. Sandage, M. Sandage, and J. Kristian (Chicago University 01 Chicago Press), Ch. 14.
Klemola, A. R. 1969, A. J., 74, 804.
Rose, J. A. 1976, Astr. Ap. Suppl. 23, 109.
Sandage, A. 1975 Ap. J., 202, 563.
Sersic, J. L. 1974 Ap. Space Sei., 28, 365.
Snow, T. P. 1970. A. J., 75, 237.
Zwicky, F., Herzog, E., and Wild, P. 1961, Catalogue of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies, Calilornia Institute of Technology.
9-10 (PDF)
ESO
Visiting Astronomers (October 1, 1977-April 1, 1978)

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10Q...9.
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
Abstract:
Visiting Astronomers (October 1, 1977-April 1, 1978)
9-9 (PDF)
ESO
Comet Schuster

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10R...9.
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
Abstract:
It is now more than one year and a half since Comet Schuster (1975 II) was discovered on an ESO Schmidt plate. It still holds the record of having the largest known perihel distance, about 1,030 million kilometres, and after having passed through the perihel on January 15, 1975, it now recedes slowly in a slightly hyperbolic (open) orbit, according to the latest orbital computations. Towards the end of 1977, it "crosses" the orbit of Saturn, and due to the comet's exceptional size, it should be possible to follow it for another several years.
9-9 (PDF)
ESO
Bent Gronbech Jorgensen

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10S...9.
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
Abstract:
With great pain we have received the notice that Bent Gronbech Jorgensen died on June 7, 1977, only 29 years old, from a heart failure, with no prior illness.
10-11 (PDF)
A. Muller
The Calibration Equipment of the ESO Schmidt Telescope

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10...10M
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Muller, A.
AA(ESO)
Abstract:
Some time ago, two calibrating devices of completely new design were installed in the ESO Schmidt telescope. Invented by ESO astronomer Dr. Andre Muller, they permit simultaneous exposure of the sky and the calibration marks in the telescope. This greatly increases the accuracy of the calibration of the photographie plate, a problem that has always worried astronomers. Dr. Muller explains how it works:
11-11 (PDF)
ESO
ESO Fellowships 1978-1979

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10...11.
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
Abstract:
ESO Fellowships 1978-1979
12-13 (PDF)
P. Veron
The Revised 3C Catalogue of Radio Sources

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10...12V
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Veron, P.
AA(Paris Observatory)
Abstract:
Dr. Philippe Veron of the Paris Observatory is well known for his work on the optical identification of radio sources. He is presently spending a two-year period with the ESO Scientific Group in Geneva, together with his charming astronomer-wife, Dr. Mira Veron. In this article, Dr. Veron discusses the importance of optical observations of extragalactic radio sources for determining the type of universe we live in and summarizes the present status of the 3CR radio survey.
13-14 (PDF)
ESO
Two New Stellar Systems Detected on ESO Schmidt Plates

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10...13.
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
Abstract:
Last year, two new irregular dwarf galaxies were discovered on ESO Schmidt plates in the constellations Phoenix and Sculptor (Messenger No. 7, December 1976). Now, Continued inspection of plates taken for the ESO (B) Survey has revealed another two, hitherto unknown stellar systems in Eridanus (River Eridanus) and in Sagittarius. Both objects have been photographed with the ESO 3.6 m telescope, and some preliminary conclusions may be drawn about their nature although further observations are clearly needed for confirmation.
14-15 (PDF)
B. Niss, H.E. Jorgensen
Eclipsing Binaries in the Globular Cluster Omega Centauri

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10...14N
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Niss, B.; Jorgensen, H.E.
AA(Copenhagen University Observatory, Denmark) AB(Copenhagen University Observatory, Denmark)
Abstract:
Of the many thousand eclipsing binary stars known, fewer than five are members of globular clusters. The powerful methods for determining masses, radii and chemical composition by means of photometrie and spectroscopic observations of eclipsing binaries can therefore not be applied to the population 11 stars in globular clusters. This is really a pity, because improved knowledge about these very old objects would have direct impact on our ideas about the universe (distance scale, earliest epoch, etc.). Hoping to get things moving along this line, two Oanish astronomers, Ors. Birger Niss and Henning E. Jorgensen of the Copenhagen University Observatory, have recently started a systematic search for eclipsing binaries in the bright southern globular cluster Omega Centauri. This is their preliminary report, not without hope for the future:
14-14 (PDF)
ESO
Tentative Meeting Schedule

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10...14.
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
16-19 (PDF)
F. Middelburg
Image Processing at ESO

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10...16M
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Middelburg, F.
AA(ESO Scientific Group, Geneva)
Abstract:
Most people have some time seen the results of computer treatment of photographs or TV pictures, for instance of satellite photos. It is amazing how an apparently fuzzy, featureless photo of Phobos suddenly reappears with sharp craters and rifts after having been "washed" in a large computer. The past years halte seen an enormous increase in the interest in applying the same image-processing techniques to the images of celestiaL objects, obtained with ground-based telescopes through the Earth's atmospbere. Significant progress has been made in some places, and we here present what has been done at ESO in this direction. The ESO system is described by Frank Middelburg (ESO/Geneva) who wrote the software and developed the features that are now available. Frank has been with ESO for more than nine years, first in Chile on La Silla, but he came back to Europe three years ago. The Image-Processing System is presently used in combination with the ESO S-3000 measuring machine that performs the scans of the photographie plates, but an important feature of this system is that it is directly applicable to any sort ofpicture: TVas weil as photographic, at the telescope as weil as afterwards in the laboratory.
19-20 (PDF)
S. Milner
The Large-Field Camera for the 3.6 m Telescope

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10...19M
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Milner, S.
AA(ESO Scientific Group, Geneva)
Abstract:
One of the important features of the ESO 3.6 m telescope is that the optics permit a comparatively large field (about 1°) to be imaged on a photographic plate in the prime foeus. This is possible due to the chosen shape of the primary mirror (modified Ritehey-Chretien) and a triplet corrector in front of the photographic plate. The large-field eamera is now ready for shipment to La Silla. It incorporates some unusual features that are not seen.at other telescopes and was designed by ESO engineer Sten Milner in Geneva. He gives this information to the future users:
20-21 (PDF)
P.O. Lindblad
A Dark Cloud in the Centre of Elliptical Galaxy NGC3311

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10...20L
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Lindblad, P.O.
AA(ESO Scientific Group, Geneva)
Abstract:
Professor Per Olof Lindblad spent the first half of 1977 with the ESO Scientific Group in Geneva. During this time he and Dr. M. Disney initiated a study of the structure of galaxies and together with Dr. S. Laustsen high-resolution photographic plates were obtained with the 3.6 m telescope. In this note Professor Lindblad discusses one of the galaxies and its companions.
21-24 (PDF)
T. Andersen
Design of the Coude Auxiliary Telescope (CAT)

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10...21A
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Andersen, T.
AA(ESO, Geneva)
Abstract:
A unique feature of the ESO 3.6 m telescope is the Coude Auxiliary Telescope that will feed the large coude spectrograph. The design of the CAT is now virtually finished and ESO engineer Torben Andersen from Geneva reports:
21-21 (PDF)
ESO
Latest Asteroid Discoveries at ESO

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10...21.
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
Abstract:
Latest Asteroid Discoveries at ESO
24-24 (PDF)
ESO
Ariel 5 Confirms LMC X-4 Optical Identification!

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10Q..24.
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
Abstract:
Ariel 5 Confirms LMC X-4 Optical Identification!
24-24 (PDF)
ESO
Algunos Resumenes

ADS BibCode:
1977Msngr..10R..24.
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
Abstract:
1962 hasta 1977-15 anos ESO; EI telescopio de 3,6 m de excelente calidad 6ptica; Los primeros astr6nomos visitantes para el telescopio de 3,6 m; Se descubren dos nuevos sistemas estelares