Messenger No. 166 (December 2016)

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The Organisation

2-27 (PDF)
T. de Zeeuw
Reaching New Heights in Astronomy — ESO Long Term Perspectives

ADS BibCode:
2016Msngr.166....2Z
Section:
The Organisation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
de Zeeuw, T.
AA(ESO)
Abstract:
A comprehensive description of ESO in the current global astronomical context, and its plans for the next decade and beyond, are presented. This survey covers all aspects of the Organisation, including the optical-infrared programme at the La Silla Paranal Observatory, the submillimetre facilities ALMA and APEX, the construction of the 39-metre European Extremely Large Telescope and the science operation of these facilities. An extension of the current optical/infrared/submillimetre facilities into multi-messenger astronomy has been made with the decision to host the southern Cherenkov Telescope Array at Paranal. The structure of the Organisation is presented and the further development of the staff is described within the scope of the long-range financial planning. The role of Chile is highlighted and expansion of the number of Member States beyond the current 15 is discussed. The strengths of the ESO model, together with challenges as well as possible new opportunities and initiatives, are examined and a strategy for the future of ESO is outlined.
References:
Baltay, C. et al. 2012, The Messenger, 150, 34 Hatzminaoglou, E. et al. 2015, The Messenger, 162, 24 Primas, F. et al. 2015, The Messenger, 161, 6 Smartt, S. J. et al. 2013, The Messenger, 154, 50 Sterzik, M. et al. 2015, The Messenger, 162, 2 Woillez, J. et al. 2015, The Messenger, 162, 16

Telescopes and Instrumentation

29-35 (PDF)
R. Gilmozzi et al.
VLT/VLTI Second-Generation Instrumentation: Lessons Learned

ADS BibCode:
2016Msngr.166...29G
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Gilmozzi, R.; Pasquini, L.; Russell, A.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO)
Abstract:
The five second-generation instruments already delivered for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) represent worthy successors to the first generation of instrumentation development. Despite this success, it is still possible to learn many lessons for the future. A review, preceded by a workshop, on the lessons learned from the second-generation instrumentation for the VLT and VLT Interferometer took place in November 2015, following a previous review twelve years ago on lessons learned from the first-generation instruments. The aim of the workshop was to identify lessons in order to help define/refine good practice and make recommendations for the future. This article briefly reports on the workshop and summarises the findings of the review panel, their recommendations and some of the steps to implement them.
References:
Bacon, R. et al. 2010, Proc. SPIE, 7735, 7735E08B Beuzit, J.-L. et al. 2008, Proc. SPIE, 7014, 701418 Le Bouquin, J.-B. et al. 2011, A&A, 535, A67 Monnet, G. & Bacon, R. 2003, The Messenger, 113, 10 Pasquini, L., Casali, M. & Russell, A. 2013, The Messenger, 154, 2 Sharples, R. et al. 2013, The Messenger, 151, 21 Vernet, J. et al. 2011, A&A, 536A, 105
36-40 (PDF)
M. Neeser et al.
Science-Grade Imaging Data for HAWK-I, VIMOS, and VIRCAM: The ESO–UK Pipeline Collaboration

ADS BibCode:
2016Msngr.166...36N
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Neeser, M.; Lewis, J.; Madsen, G.; Yoldas, A.; Irwin, M.; Gabasch, A.; Coccato, L.; García-Dabó, C. E.; Romaniello, M.; Freudling, W.; Ballester, P.
AA(ESO) AB(Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit, Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom) AC(Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit, Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom) AD(Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit, Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom) AE(Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit, Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom) AF(ESO) AG(ESO) AH(ESO) AI(ESO) AJ(ESO) AK(ESO)
Abstract:
A new chapter for ESO science-grade data has begun with the implementa-tion of three new pipelines developed for the HAWK-I, VIMOS and VIRCAM instruments. The HAWK-I and VIMOS image archives at ESO have been completely reprocessed using these new pipelines, and these data are now publicly available. This article introduces the work done to bring these pipelines to the level of science-grade, their use in reprocessing ESO archival data, and their dissemination into ESO science operations and to the ESO community.
References:
Arsenault, R. et al. 2016, The Messenger, 164, 2 Emerson, J., McPherson, A. & Sutherland, W. 2006, The Messenger, 126, 41 Freudling, W. et al. 2013, A&A, 559, A96 Roeser, S., Demleitner, M. & Schilbach, E. 2010, AJ, 139, 2440 Skrutskie, M. F. et al. 2006, AJ, 131, 1163
41-46 (PDF)
F. Derie et al.
Stereo-SCIDAR: Instrument and First Commissioning Results

ADS BibCode:
2016Msngr.166...41D
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Derie, F.; Wilson, R.; Osborn, J.; Dubbeldam, M.; Sarazin, M.; Ridings, R.; Navarrete, J.; Lelouarn, M.
AA(ESO) AB(Department of Physics, University of Durham, United Kingdom) AC(Department of Physics, University of Durham, United Kingdom) AD(Department of Physics, University of Durham, United Kingdom) AE(ESO) AF(ESO) AG(ESO) AH(ESO)
Abstract:
The vertical distribution of atmospheric optical turbulence has a significant impact on the performance of wide-field adaptive optics systems. Stereo-SCIDAR is an instrument capable of measuring the vertical profile of the turbulence strength and velocity with high sensitivity and altitude resolution. Stereo-SCIDAR, developed in close collaboration with Durham University, was successfully tested at the La Silla Paranal Observatory in mid-2016. This visitor instrument is located at the coudé focus of one of the Auxiliary Telescopes and will record atmospheric turbulence profiles above Paranal for one year starting in October 2016. These measurements are required for the specification and implementation of adaptive optics for the European Extremely Large Telescope.
References:
Shepherd, H. W. et al. 2014, MNRAS, 437, 3568 Vásquez Ramió, H. et al. 2008, The Messenger, 132, 29

Astronomical Science

48-52 (PDF)
J. S. Dunlop
A Deep ALMA Image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

ADS BibCode:
2016Msngr.166...48D
Section:
Astronomical Science
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Dunlop, J. S.
AA(Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, UK)
Abstract:
Although primarily designed as a high-resolution imaging spectrometer at submillimetre/millimetre wavelengths, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has a vital role to play in producing the key deep, unconfused, submillimetre/millimetre continuum surveys required to bridge the current gap in our understanding of visible and dust-obscured star formation in the young Universe. The first such survey has now been completed, comprising a mosaic of 45 ALMA pointings at a wavelength of 1.3 mm, covering the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF). This deep, homogeneous ALMA survey, combined with the wealth of existing data in the HUDF, has already provided new clarity on the nature of dusty star-forming galaxies, and the relative evolution of dust-obscured and unobscured star formation over cosmic time.
References:
Behroozi, P. S., Wechsler, R. H. & Conroy, C. 2013, ApJ, 770, 57 Bourne, N. et al. 2016, arXiv:1607.04283 Burgarella, D. et al. 2013, A&A, 554, 70 Chabrier, G. 2003, PASP, 115, 763 Coppin, K. E. K. et al. 2006, MNRAS, 372, 1621 Cucciati, O. et al. 2012, A&A, 539, 31 Daddi, E. et al. 2007, ApJ, 670, 156 Dunlop, J. S. et al. 2016, MNRAS, in press, arXiv:1606.00227 Ellis, R. S. et al. 2013, ApJ, 763, L7 Fujimoto, S. et al. 2016, ApJS, 222, 1 Geach, J. E. et al. 2013, MNRAS, 432, 53 Hughes, D. H. et al. 1998, Nature, 394, 241 Kennicutt, R. C. & Evans, N. J. 2012, ARA&A, 50, 531 Kirkpatrick, A. et al. 2015, ApJ, 814, 9 Madau, P. & Dickinson, M. 2014, ARA&A, 52, 415 McLeod, D. J. et al. 2015, MNRAS, 450, 3032 McLure, R. J. et al. 2013, MNRAS, 432, 2696 Michalowski, M. J. et al. 2016, arXiv:1610.02409 Narayan, D. et al. 2015, Nature, 525, 496 Noeske, K. G. et al. 2007, ApJ, 660, L43 Parsa, S. et al. 2016, MNRAS, 456, 3194 Rujopakarn, W. et al. 2016, arXiv:1607.07710 Speagle, J. S. et al. 2014, ApJS, 214, 15 Walter, F. et al. 2016, ApJ, in press, arXiv:1607.06768 Weiss, A. et al. 2009, ApJ, 707, 1201
53-57 (PDF)
K. Basu et al.
First ALMA Detection of a Galaxy Cluster Merger Shock

ADS BibCode:
2016Msngr.166...53B
Section:
Astronomical Science
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Basu, K.; Sommer, M.; Erler, J.; Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Magnelli, B.; Bertoldi, F.; Tozzi, P.
AA(Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Germany) AB(Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Germany) AC(Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Germany) AD(Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Versoix, Switzerland) AE(Hamburger Sternwarte, Germany) AF(Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Germany) AG(Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Germany) AH(INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy)
Abstract:
We report on the first ALMA measurement of a galaxy cluster merger shock, observed at the location of a radio relic in the famous El Gordo galaxy cluster at redshift z ~ 0.9. Located at about half the current age of the Universe, this is also the most distant example of a directly measured astrophysical shock. ALMA Band 3 was utilised to measure the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) effect signature that confirms a small-scale change in pressure as expected from the passage of a shock in the intracluster medium. The results support a previous radio-based estimate of the shock Mach number and display similarities, and also some mild tensions, with the X-ray based results. Most importantly, these results show the potential of ALMA to detect galaxy cluster shocks, observations that will advance our knowledge of cluster formation, non-thermal particle acceleration and amplification of magnetic fields across the entire observable Universe where such relic shocks can be found.
References:
Akamatsu, H. & Kawahara, H. 2013, PASJ, 65, 16 Basu, K. et al. 2016, ApJ, 829, L23 Blandford, R. & Eichler, D. 1987, PhR, 154, 1 Erler, J. et al. 2015, MNRAS, 447, 2497 Lindner, R. R. et al. 2014, ApJ, 786, 49 Menanteau, F. et al. 2012, ApJ, 748, 7 Skillman, S. W. et al. 2013, ApJ, 765, 21 Vazza, F. et al. 2015, A&A, 580, A119

Astronomical News

59-62 (PDF)
W. R. F. Dent et al.
Resolving Planet Formation in the Era of ALMA and Extreme AO Report on the joint ESO/NRAO Conference

ADS BibCode:
2016Msngr.166...59D
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Dent, W. R. F.; Hales, A.; Milli, J.
AA(ALMA Santiago Central Office, Chile; ESO) AB(National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, USA) AC(ESO)
Abstract:
ALMA in its long-baseline configuration, as well as new optical/near-infrared adaptive optics instruments such as SPHERE and GPI, are now able to achieve spatial resolutions considerably better than 0.1 arcseconds. These facilities are enabling us to observe for the first time the regions around young stars where planets form. Already, complex structures including holes, spiral waves and extreme asymmetries are being found in these protoplanetary discs. To discuss these newly-imaged phenomena, and to enable cross-fertilisation of ideas between the two wavelength ranges, a joint ESO/NRAO workshop was held in Santiago. We present here a summary and some highlights of the meeting.
References:
ALMA Partnership: Brogan, C. L. et al. 2015, ApJ, 808L, 3 Andrews, S. M. et al. 2016, ApJ, 820, L40 Boccaletti, A. et al. 2015, Nature, 526, 230 Casassus, S. et al. 2013, A&A, 553, 64 Marino, A. et al. 2016, MNRAS, 460, 2933
62-64 (PDF)
B. Leibundgut et al.
Very Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Community Days Report on the ESO Workshop

ADS BibCode:
2016Msngr.166...62L
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Leibundgut, B.; Kasper, M.; Kuntschner, H.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO)
Abstract:
The future of adaptive optics (AO) instruments at the VLT was discussed during a two-day workshop. Three major directions emerged from these discussions: adaptive optics in the optical; multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO); and extreme adaptive optics (XAO). The science cases for these three options were presented and the discussions are summarised. ESO is now planning to provide detailed science cases for an optical AO system and to prepare upgrade plans for XAO and MOAO.
References:
Arsenault, R. et al. 2010, The Messenger, 142, 12 Arsenault, R. et al. 2014, The Messenger, 156, 2 Arsenault, R. et al. 2016, The Messenger, 164, 2 Ferraro, F. R. et al. 2009, Nature, 462, 483 Fiorentino, G. et al. 2011, A&A, 535, A63 Förster Schreiber, N. M. et al. 2014, ApJ, 787, 38 Genzel, R. et al. 2014, ApJ, 785, 75 Marchetti, E. et al. 2007, The Messenger, 129, 8 Troncoso, P. et al. 2014, A&A, 563, A58
65-66 (PDF)
T. de Zeeuw, J. Walsh
Claus Madsen Retires

ADS BibCode:
2016Msngr.166...65Z
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
de Zeeuw, T.; Walsh, J.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO)
Abstract:
Claus Madsen began at ESO as a photographer in 1980 and recently retired as senior advisor on international relations. During his career he authored several books, the most notable being a history of ESO from the late 1980s to the 50th anniversary in 2012. A brief appreciation of his career is presented.
References:
Blaauw, A. 1991, ESO’s Early History — The European Southern Observatory from Concept to Reality, (Garching, Germany: ESO) Heck, A. & Madsen, C. (eds) 2003, Astronomy Communication, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, 290 Laustsen, S., Madsen, C. & West, R. M. 1987, Exploring the Southern Sky: a pictorial atlas from the European Southern Observatory (ESO), (Springer) Madsen, C. 1981, The Messenger, 25, 16 Madsen, C. 2004, The Messenger, 116, 42 Madsen, C. 2010, Scientific Europe: policies and politics of the European research area, (Brentwood, UK: Multi-Science Publishing) Madsen, C. 2012, The Jewel on the Mountaintop, (London: Wiley-VCH)
66-67 (PDF)
J. Walsh
Retirement of Dietrich Baade

ADS BibCode:
2016Msngr.166...66W
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Walsh, J.
AA(ESO)
Abstract:
After 35 years as an astronomer at ESO, Dietrich Baade has retired. He held many different scientific positions in ESO during his career and a brief appreciation is presented, together with a glimpse of his astronomical research interests. A retirement party was held in September 2016.
References:
Baade, D. et al. 1994, The Messenger, 75, 1 Baade, D. et al. 1995, The Messenger, 95, 15 Baade, D. et al. 2009, The Messenger, 136, 20 Madsen, C. 2012, The Jewel on the Mountaintop, (London: Wiley-VCH) Mathys, G. 1997, The Messenger, 89, 11 Wilson, R. N. 1989, The Messenger, 56, 1
68-71 (PDF)
Y. Jaffé et al.
Fellows at ESO

ADS BibCode:
2016Msngr.166...68.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Jaffé, Y.; Stroe, A.; Xu, S.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO)
71-71 (PDF)
ESO
Personnel Movements

ADS BibCode:
2016Msngr.166...71.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)