Messenger No. 176 (June 2019)

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The Organisation

3-7 (PDF)
T. Ray et al.
Astronomy in Ireland

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5133
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.176....3R
Section:
The Organisation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Ray, T.; Callanan, P.; Chernyakova, M.; Espey, B.; Hanlon, L.; O’Sullivan, C.; Redman, M.; Smith, N.
AA(Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (DIAS), Ireland) AB(University College Cork, Ireland) AC(Dublin City University, Ireland) AD(Trinity College Dublin (TCD), Ireland) AE(University College Dublin, Ireland) AF(Maynooth University, Ireland) AG(National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland) AH(Blackrock Castle Observatory, Cork, Ireland)
Abstract:
Astronomy has been very important in Ireland since ancient times. In the  Victorian era, the country had not only the largest reflector in the world, but also the largest refractor. Modern astronomical research is concentrated in various Irish universities as well as the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. Astronomy is very popular among the public at large, and also as a means of promoting graduate uptake in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). After providing some historical background, we give a broad-brush review of astronomical research in the country with the intention of encouraging collaboration with Ireland, the newest member of the ESO family.
8-11 (PDF)
M.L. Cioni
The ESO Users Committee: Giving Users a Voice

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5134
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.176....8C
Section:
The Organisation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Cioni, M.-R.L.
AA(Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, Germany)
Abstract:
The Users Committee (UC) was introduced at ESO in 1978 and since its first meeting in September of that year it has assisted the Director General and the ESO management in improving the performance of the Organisation, including scientific access, operations and data management facilities, and other services related to the scientific products. The UC is an advisory body that represents European users of both La Silla Paranal observatory, including the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX), and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). It is the main channel of communication between the users and ESO. UC members’ engagement with specific activities has evolved over time in line with the development of ESO’s facilities and the expansion of the ESO community. This article provides information on the composition of the UC and details of its main activities, and highlights topics that have been discussed over the last decade.
References:
Hainaut, O. R. et al. 2018, The Messenger, 171, 8; Patat, F. 2017, The Messenger, 170, 51; Patat, F. 2018, The Messenger, 173, 7; Primas, F. 2014, The Messenger, 158, 8; Rejkuba, M. et al. 2018, The Messenger, 173, 1; Sterzik, M. et al. 2015, The Messenger, 162, 2; Sterzik, M. et al. 2016, SPIE, 9910, 991003; van Loon, J. 2009, The Messenger, 136, 61; Wisotzki, L. 2001, The Messenger, 106, 46

Telescopes and Instrumentation

13-15 (PDF)
M. Cayrel et al.
ELT – Where the Secondary Mirror Becomes a Giant

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5135
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.176...13C
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Cayrel, M.; Cirasuolo, M.; Tamai, R.; Haupt, C.; Sqalli, O.; Muller, M.; Dierickx, P.; Koehler, B.; Marchet, F.B.; Gonzalez, J.C.; Tuti, M.; ELT Team
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO) AD(ESO) AE(ESO) AF(ESO) AG(ESO) AH(ESO) AI(ESO) AJ(ESO) AK(ESO) AL(ESO)
Abstract:
The Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) is at the core of ESO’s vision to deliver the largest optical and infrared telescope in the world. Following on from our previous Messenger article describing the primary mirror (M1), here we focus on the secondary (M2) and the tertiary (M3) mirrors of the ELT, outlining the complexity and challenges involved, and the current manufacturing status.
16-19 (PDF)
B. Leibundgut et al.
MUSE Narrow Field Mode Adaptive Optics Science Verification

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5136
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.176...16L
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Leibundgut, B.; Bacon, R.; Bian, F.; Kakkad, D.; Kuntschner, H.; Selman, F.; Valenti, E.; Vernet, J.; Vogt, F.; Wylezalek, D.
AA(ESO) AB(CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, Saint-Genis Laval, France) AC(ESO) AD(ESO) AE(ESO) AF(ESO) AG(ESO) AH(ESO) AI(ESO) AJ(ESO)
Abstract:
The Narrow-Field Mode (NFM) on the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) uses laser tomography to correct for atmospheric turbulence at optical wavelengths. Science verification of this new mode of the MUSE instrument took place in September 2018. The science verification observations were obtained in service mode. Out of 37 submitted proposals, 16 observing programmes were scheduled for a total of 43.5 hours of observations. The allocation assumed a seeing better than 0.8 arcseconds, i.e., the required atmospheric conditions to achieve effective adaptive optics correction. Some of the top priority programmes could not be executed because the reference stars were too faint to provide sufficient low-order adaptive optics corrections. As shown by the first results presented here, the NFM will enable advances across a range of scientific areas, for example, characterising substellar/planetary mass objects, globular clusters, and active galactic nuclei.
References:
Delorme, P. et al. 2013, A&A, 553, L5; Freudling, W. et al. 2013, A&A, 559, A96; Janson, M. et al. 2017, A&A, 599, 70; Knapen, J. H., Comerón, S. & Seidel, M. K. 2019, A&A, 621, L5
20-24 (PDF)
F.M. Montenegro-Montes et al.
Orion-KL Observations with the Extended Tuning Range of the New SEPIA660 APEX Facility Instrument

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5137
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.176...20M
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Montenegro-Montes, F.M.; Torstensson, K.; Parra, R.; Pérez-Beaupuits, J.P.; Nyman, L.-Å.; Agurto, C.; Azagra, F.; Cárdenas, M.; González, E.; MacAuliffe, F.; Venegas, P.; De Breuck, C.; Bergman, P.; Gunawan, D.S.; Wyrowski, F.; Stanke, T.; Belitsky, V.; Fredrixon, M.; Meledin, D.; Olberg, M.; Strandberg, M.; Sundin, E.; Adema, J.; Barkhof, J.; Baryshev, A.; Hesper, R.; Khudchenko, A.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO) AD(ESO) AE(ESO) AF(ESO) AG(ESO) AH(ESO) AI(ESO) AJ(ESO) AK(ESO) AL(ESO) AM(Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory (OSO), Sweden) AN(IFA Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile) AO(Max-Planck-Institut für Radiastronomie (MPIfR), Bonn, Germany) AP(ESO) AQ(Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory (OSO), Sweden) AR(Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory (OSO), Sweden) AS(Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory (OSO), Sweden) AT(Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory (OSO), Sweden) AU(Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory (OSO), Sweden) AV(Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory (OSO), Sweden) AW(NOVA Submillimetre Instrumentation Group, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, the Netherlands) AX(NOVA Submillimetre Instrumentation Group, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, the Netherlands) AY(NOVA Submillimetre Instrumentation Group, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, the Netherlands) AZ(NOVA Submillimetre Instrumentation Group, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, the Netherlands) BA(NOVA Submillimetre Instrumentation Group, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, the Netherlands)
Abstract:
During Science Verification of the new SEPIA660 facility receiver at APEX, we carried out a shallow line survey of the archetypal Kleinmann-Low Nebula in the Orion star forming region (Orion-KL). These observations cover the tuning range towards the band edges, which has recently been extended beyond ALMA Band 9 specifications. At these frequencies, atmospheric transmission is very low but still sufficient to detect bright lines in Orion-KL. We present the collected spectra and compare with surveys from the literature, demonstrating the capabilities of the instrument.
References:
Becklin, E. E. & Neugebauer, G. 1967, ApJ, 147, 799; Belitsky, V. et al. 2018, A&A, 612, A23; Crockett, N. R. et al. 2014, ApJ, 787, 112; Getman, K. V. et al. 2005, ApJS, 160, 353; Forbrich, J. et al. 2016, ApJ, 822, 93; Hesper, R. et al. 2017, IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, vol. 7, no. 6, 686; Hesper, R. et al. 2018, Proceedings of the 29th International Symposium on Space THz Technology, Pasadena, March 2018; Hirota, T., Kim, M. K. & Honma, M. 2016, ApJ, 817, 168; Kleinmann, D. E. & Low, F. J. 1967, ApJ, 149, L1; Menten, K. M. et al. 2007, A&A, 474, 515; Muench, A. A. et al. 2002, ApJ, 573, 366; Pardo, J. R. et al. 2001, IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, 49/12, 1683; Rodríguez, L. F. et al. 2017, ApJ, 834, 140; Schilke, P. et al. 2001, ApJSS, 132, 281; Shuping, R. Y., Morris, M. & Bally, J. 2004, AJ, 128, 363
25-31 (PDF)
F. Cantalloube et al.
Peering through SPHERE Images: A Glance at Contrast Limitations

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5138
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.176...25C
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Cantalloube, F.; Dohlen, K.; Milli, J.; Brandner, W.; Vigan, A.
AA(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany) AB(Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CNES, France) AC(ESO) AD(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany) AE(Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CNES, France)
Abstract:
Various structures are visible within Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch instrument (SPHERE) images that are not always straightforward to interpret. In this article we present a review of these features and demonstrate their origin using simulations. We also identify which expected or unexpected features are limiting the contrast reached by the instrument and how they may be tackled. This vision paves the way to designing a future upgrade of the SPHERE instrument and the next generation of high-contrast instruments such as those planned for the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT).
References:
Beuzit, J. L. et al. 2019, A&A, submitted, arXiv:1902.04080; Baudoz, P. et al. 2010, SPIE, 7735, 77355B; Carbillet, M. et al. 2011, Experimental Astronomy, 30, 39; Cantalloube, F. et al. 2018, A&A, 620, L10; Chauvin, G. et al. 2017, A&A, 605, L9; Chauvin, G. et al. 2017, SF2A 2017, 331; Claudi, R. U. et al. 2008, SPIE, 7014, 70143E Delorme, P. et al. 2017, A&A, 608, A79; Dohlen, K. et al. 2008, SPIE, 7014, 70143L Fusco, T. et al. 2006, Optics Express, 14, 7515; Fusco, T. et al. 2014, SPIE, 9148, 91481U Guerri, G. et al. 2011, Experimental Astronomy, 30, 59; Jolissaint, L. et al. 2006, JOSA, 23, 382; Keppler, M. et al. 2018, A&A, 617, A44; Madurowicz, A. et al. 2018, SPIE, 10703, 107036E; Milli, J. et al. 2018, SPIE, 10703, 107032A; Mouillet, D. et al. 2018, SPIE, 10703, 107031Q; N’ Diaye, M. et al. 2013, A&A, 555, A94; Poyneer, L. A. et al. 2004, JOSA, 21, 5; Ragazzoni, R. et al. 1999, A&A, 350, L26; Sauvage, J. F. et al. 2010, JOSA, 27, 157; Sauvage, J. F. et al. 2014, SPIE, 9148, 914847; Sauvage, J. F. et al. 2015, AO4ELT4, E9; Schmid, H. M. et al. 2018, A&A, 619, A9; Soummer, R. et al. 2005, ApJ, 618, L161; Sinquin, J. C. et al. 2008, SPIE, 7015, 70150O; Vigan, A. et al. 2018, SPIE, 10703, 107035O

Astronomical Science

33-36 (PDF)
A. Fontana et al.
KLASS – The Role of Low-Mass Galaxies from Cosmic Dawn to Cosmic Noon

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5139
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.176...33F
Section:
Astronomical Science
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Fontana, A.; Mason, C.A.; Girard, M.; Treu, T.; Jones, T.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Morishita, T.; Pentericci, L.; Schmidt, K.; Wang, X.
AA(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Italy) AB(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, USA; Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA) AC(Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, Switzerland.) AD(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, USA) AE(Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, USA) AF(Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, Switzerland.) AG(Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA) AH(INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Italy) AI(Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany) AJ(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, USA)
Abstract:
The KMOS Lens-Amplified Spectroscopic Survey (KLASS) is an ESO Large Programme that uses the KMOS infrared spectrograph to investigate the role of low-mass galaxies at several epochs of cosmic time. KLASS has targeted galaxies behind massive clusters, using gravitational amplification and stretching to observe galaxies that are intrinsically very faint. By pushing KMOS to the limits of its capabilities, we have obtained new constraints on the timescale of the reionisation process, finding that the intergalactic medium was almost completely neutral at a redshift of around 8, and that turbulence plays a major role in shaping low mass galaxies at intermediate redshifts (0.5 < z < 2).
References:
Förster Schreiber, N. et al. 2009, ApJ, 706, 1364; Fontana, A. et al. 2010, ApJL, 725, 205; Girard, M. et al. 2018, A&A, 613, 72; Mason, C. A. et al. 2017, ApJ, 838, 14; Mason, C. A. et al. 2018, ApJ, 856, 2; Mason, C. A. et al. 2019, MNRAS, 485, 3947; Pentericci, L. et al. 2018, A&A, 619, 147 Wisnioski, E. et al. 2015, ApJ, 799, 209
37-39 (PDF)
P. Barthel, J. Versteeg
ALMA Resolves the Stellar Birth Explosions in Distant Radio-Loud Quasars

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5140
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.176...37B
Section:
Astronomical Science
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Barthel, P.; Versteeg, J.
AA(Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, the Netherlands) AB(Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, the Netherlands; Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands)
Abstract:
Far-infrared photometry with the Herschel Space Observatory has found many examples of ultra-luminous dust emission at around 40 K in the host galaxies of high-redshift, radio-loud 3C Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The dust heating could have its origin in the central black hole activity or extreme circumnuclear starbursts, or both. We have used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Cycle 3 to study the dust morphology on the kiloparsec scale in a sample of these AGN, and present the results for three well-known distant quasars: 3C298, 3C318, and 3C454. After correction for the non-thermal radiation at 1 mm, the observations imply a starburst origin for the cool thermal dust emission, and a symbiotic physical relationship with the AGN-driven radio source.
References:
Anderson, S. F. et al. 1987, AJ, 94, 278; Barthel, P. D. et al. 2012, ApJ, 757, L26; Barthel, P. D. et al. 2017, ApJ, 843, L16; Barthel, P. D. et al. 2018, ApJ, 866, L3; Calistro-Rivera, G. & Hodge, J. 2018, The Messenger, 173, 33; Condon, J. J. 1992, ARA&A, 30, 575; Falkendal, T. et al. 2019, A&A, 621, A27; Hatziminaoglou, E. et al. 2018, MNRAS, 480, 4974; Hilbert, B. et al. 2016, ApJS, 225, 12; Hodge, J. A. et al. 2016, ApJ, 833, 103; Leipski, C. et al. 2014, ApJ, 785, 154; Ma, Z. & Yan, H. 2015, ApJ, 811, 58; Pitchford, L. K. et al. 2016, MNRAS, 462, 4067; Podigachoski, P. et al. 2015, A&A, 575, A80; Podigachoski, P. et al. 2016a, MNRAS, 462, 4183; Podigachoski, P. et al. 2016b, A&A, 585, A142; Spencer, R. E. et al. 1991, MNRAS, 250, 225; Tacconi, L. et al. 2006, ApJ, 640, 228; Trump, J. R. et al. 2013, ApJ, 763, 133; Vayner, A. et al. 2017, ApJ, 851, 126; Wang, R. et al. 2013, ApJ, 773, 44; Westhues, C. et al. 2016, AJ, 151, 120

Astronomical News

41-44 (PDF)
F. Primas et al.
The New ESO Phase 1 System for Proposal Submission

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5141
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.176...41P
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Primas, F.; Hainaut, O.; Bierwirth, T.; Patat, F.; Dorigo, D.; Hoppe, E.; Lange, U.; Pasquato, M.; Sogni, F.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO) AD(ESO) AE(ESO) AF(ESO) AG(ESO) AH(ESO) AI(ESO)
Abstract:
On 1 April 2019 ESO released its new Phase1 system (p1) for the submission of Director’s Discretionary Time (DDT) observing proposals for the period between April and September 2019 (Period 103). The p1 interface will be extended to all types of observing proposals in the Period 105 Call for Proposals, which will be released in September 2019. This represents the first part of a broader overhaul of the ESO Phase 1 system that also entails a significant modernisation of the Observ-ing Programmes Committee peer review process and associated tools. Here we highlight the main features of the new user interface for proposals submission.
References:
Hainaut, O. et al. 2018, The Messenger, 171, 8; ESO 1998, The VLT White Book, (Garching, Germany: European Southern Observatory)

44-47 (PDF)
R. Siebenmorgen et al.
Report on the ESO Event "20th Anniversary of Science Exploration with FORS"

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5142
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.176...44S
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Siebenmorgen, R.; Boffin, H.; Derie, F.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO)
Abstract:
About 50 scientists belonging to the “Friends of FORS” family convened at the ESO Supernova Planetarium & Visitor Centre to celebrate 20 years of successful science exploration with FORS1 and FORS2. Scientific highlights from these instruments were discussed, covering various research areas rang-ing from interstellar bodies entering our Solar System, to the detection of exo- planets and biomarkers, interstellar medium dust polarisation, binary star velocities, galaxy dynamics, high-redshift galaxies near the re-ionisation epoch, and transient astronomical events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and gravitational waves. In addition to reviewing the amazing scientific achievements from the FORS instruments, a specific goal of the conference was to discuss ways in which to foster the high scientific impact of the instrument in the future. Various suggestions from the ESO community for upgrading the instrument were presented and discussed.
References:
Appenzeller, I. et al. 1998, The Messenger, 94, 1; Balestra, P. et al. 2010, A&A, 512, A12; Barcons, X. et al. 2002, A&A, 382, 522; McNeil, E. K. et al. 2010, A&A, 518, A44; Meech, K. et al. 2017, Nature, 552, 378; Micheli, M. et al. 2018, Nature, 559, 223; Nikolov, N. et al. 2018, Nature, 557, 526; Pian, E. et al. 2017, Nature, 551, 67; Popesso, P. et al. 2009, A&A, 494, 443; Rupprecht, G. et al. 2010, The Messenger, 140, 2; Sedaghati, E. et al. 2017, Nature, 549, 238; Spiniello, C. et al. 2018, MNRAS, 480, 1163; Szokoly, G. P. et al. 2004, ApJS, 155, 271; Sterzik, M. et al. 2012, Nature, 483, 64; Vanzella, E. et al. 2008, A&A, 478, 83
48-49 (PDF)
T. Zafar et al.
Report on the ESO Workshop "Linking Galaxies from the Epoch of Initial Star Formation to Today"

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5143
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.176...48Z
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Zafar, T.; De Breuck, C.; Arnaboldi, M.
AA(Australian Astronomical Optics, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia) AB(ESO) AC(ESO)
Abstract:
We report on the first joint Australia–ESO conference since the start of the Strategic Partnership. The conference was supported by ESO, the Australian Academy of Science (under a research grant from Elizabeth & Frederick White), the Australian Government Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, the Independent Research Fund Denmark, Macquarie University, the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS), and Astronomy Australia Limited. The scientific organising committee (SOC) took several measures to tackle unconscious bias while preparing an exciting programme with good gender balance and greater representation from early career researchers. We detail our approach here with the aim of helping organisers of future conferences.
References:
D’Agostino, J. J. et al. 2018, MNRAS, 479, 4907
50-54 (PDF)
C. Harrison et al.
ESO Science Ambassadors

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5144
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.176...50H
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Harrison, C.; Arrigoni Battaia, F.; Moorcraft, L.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO; Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching, Germany) AC(Technische Universität München (TUM), Garching, Germany)
Abstract:
The Science Ambassador project, initiated by ESO Fellows from Garching and Vitacura, is designed to disseminate information about ESO’s activities by sending scientists to visit countries across Europe and Chile. The primary goals are: (1) to raise awareness of ESO’s mission and its telescopes, with a focus on the Extremely Large Telescope; (2) to transmit the ESO Supernova Planetarium & Visitor Centre experience to schools and the general public; and (3) to promote opportunities at ESO for early-career researchers. The project also provides a long-term legacy through training of local educators and donation of resources.
References:
GRAVITY Collaboration et al. 2018, A&A, 615, L15; Smartt, S. et al. 2017, Nature, 551, 75
54-58 (PDF)
J. Corral-Santana et al.
Fellows at ESO

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5145
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.176...54E
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Corral-Santana, J.; Agliozzo, C.; Anderson, R.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO)
58-58 (PDF)
B. Leibundgut
Gustav Andreas Tammann (1932–2019)

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5146
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.176...58L
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Leibundgut, B.
AA(ESO)
59-59 (PDF)
ESO
Personnel Movements

ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.176...59E
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO