Seminars and Colloquia at ESO Garching and on the campus

July 2020

13/07/20 (Monday)
15:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — Topics in inflationary cosmology: reheating, gauge fields and gravitational waves
Kaloian Lozanov (MPA)
09/07/20 (Thursday)
15:15, Webinar | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — ESO's Extremely Large Telescope and the future of European ground-based astronomy
Michele Cirasuolo (ESO)
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Abstract

The Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) is a revolutionary scientific facility that will allow the ESO astronomical community to address many of the most pressing unsolved questions about our Universe. The ELT with its 39-metre primary mirror will be the largest optical/near-IR telescope in the world and will open a huge discovery space.

In this presentation I will provide an overview of the ELT Programme, highlighting the latest status of the telescope and the instrumentation. I will then focus on the key science drivers: from the discovery of extrasolar planets and possibility of life, to the evolution of stars and galaxies, to Cosmology and our understanding of the Universe.

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14:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Theoretical High Energy Physics Seminar
Talk — Mixing and CP violation in the charm system
Alexander Lenz (Durham)
08/07/20 (Wednesday)
11:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
USM Colloquium
Talk — Stellar Kinematics within the SAMI Galaxy Survey
Jesse van de Sande (Univ. of Sydney)
10:45, Webinar | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — Highlights from the first online EAS meeting
Marianne Heida (ESO)

Abstract

The EAS 2020 meeting was forced to move online this year. I'll discuss how they decided to go about it and how this worked out, for attendees, session organisers and virtual exhibitors. What worked well and should be kept in post-covid times and what didn't?

10:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
MPE-CAS Journal Club on Star and Planet Formation
Talk — Effect of grain size distribution and size-dependent grain heating on molecular abundances in starless and pre-stellar cores & Carbon isotopic fractionation in molecular clouds
Olli Sipilä (MPE)

Abstract

Papers:

https://arxiv.org/pdf/2006.09741.pdf
https://arxiv.org/pdf/2006.03362.pdf

07/07/20 (Tuesday)
12:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — The falling sky in the Gaia revolution
Alejandra Recio-Blanco (OCA)

Abstract

Our understanding of the Milky Way is now undergoing a revolution, thanks to the European Space Agency Gaia mission. The Gaia second data release (GDR2, Gaia Collaboration et al. 2016) has uncovered a living and breathing Galaxy, out of equilibrium, with an eventful history, rich in accretion events and interactions with satellite galaxies.

Gaia's ability to trace the motion of stars in the sky is producing a moving picture that is deeply transforming our Milky Way's understanding. In this talk, I will focuss on the reconstruction of the merger tree from chemo-dynamical diagnostics. In particular, the study of heavy elements has recently revealed a chemo-dynamical correlation for both globular clusters and field stars of the Galactic halo involving their [Y/Eu] abundance and orbital inclination. The detected trends, likely imprinted by the Milky Way's formation history, shed light into the halo heavy element abundance scatter, challenging chemical evolution models. [Y/Eu] under-abundances typical of protracted chemical evolutions, are preferentially observed in the slow rotating merger debris around the Galactic polar axis. This embodies a mixture of accretion remains from satellites of different masses, pointing to a possible preferential merger
direction, crucial to constrain simulations of the Local Group.

10:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Star and Planet Formation Seminar
Talk — Connecting planet formation and astrochemistry: C/O and N/O of warm giant planets and Jupiter-analogs
Alex Cridland (Leiden Observatory)

Abstract

The chemical composition of planetary atmospheres has long thought to store information regarding where and when a planet accretes its material. Predicting this chemical composition theoretically is a crucial step in linking observational studies to the underlying physics that govern planet formation. Here I will present a synthetic population of warm Jupiters (semi-major axis between 0.5-4 AU) extracted from a planetesimal formation population synthesis model. We compute the astrochemical evolution of the protoplanetary disks that produce our planets to predict the carbon-to-oxygen (C/O) and nitrogen-to-oxygen (N/O) ratio of the planetary atmospheres. The population of synthetic warm Jupiters follow the empirically-derived mass-metallicity relation found for our solar system (higher mass planets have lower metallicity), with some scatter driven by planets forming around super-solar metallicity stars. Jupiter-analogs are planets who's mass and orbital radius coincide with Jupiter, if Saturn had not existed (thereby eliminating the Grand Tack model). Comparing our Jupiter-analogs to Jupiter's elemental ratios shows that its evolution is inconsistent with our formation model - suggesting its formation is more consistent with a pebble accretion or hybrid model. Finally, I will outline the details of carbon refractory erosion as it pertains to our model and how changing the carbon erosion front impacts the chemical properties of our population.

06/07/20 (Monday)
15:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — A step further: fine diagnostics of X-ray echoes from Sgr A* historical outbursts
Ildar Khabibullin (MPA)
15:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
ESO Cosmic Duologues
Maruša Bradač & Andrea Ferrara (UC Davis, USA & Scuola Normale Superiorne, Pisa, Italy)
02/07/20 (Thursday)
14:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Theoretical High Energy Physics Seminar
Marco Drewes (Louvain)
01/07/20 (Wednesday)
11:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
USM Colloquium
Talk — The Geology of Rocky Exoplanets
Amy Bonsor (IoA Cambridge)
10:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — H02020 - ESO's first global live e-conference
Richard I. Anderson (ESO)

Abstract

We recently organized the e-conference entitled "Assessing uncertainties in Hubble's constant across the Universe", or #H02020, which took place from 22 to 26 June 2020, daily from 12:50 - 15:10 UTC.


Originally planned as an in-person conference to be held at ESO HQ in Garching, #H02020 was moved to the virtual domain in response to the COVID-19 pandemic that led to strict worldwide travel restrictions and a severe reduction in the number of conferences held this early Summer.
With no blueprints for implementation, we decided to risk the experiment of converting a fully planned conference to a live online event spanning 18 time zones using existing infrastructures and free versions of online tools and platforms.

In this informal discussion, I will present how we went about implementing this e-conference, how it was received, and what we have learned in the process.

Given the very positive response received from the community, we hope that others will build and improve upon our setup in order to make e-conferencing an effective, inclusive, and climate-friendly alternative to in-person meetings.

10:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
MPE-CAS Journal Club on Star and Planet Formation
Talk — Rapid Elimination of Small Dust Grains in Molecular Clouds
Kedron Silsbee (MPE)

June 2020

30/06/20 (Tuesday)
16:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Cosmology Seminar
Talk — Joint cosmology and mass calibration from tSZ cluster counts and cosmic shear
Andrina Nicola (Princeton Univ.)
12:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — Connecting the accretion history with the density of the Fornax cluster
Marilena Spavone (INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte)

Abstract

I will present a work based on deep multi-band (g, r, i) data from the Fornax Deep Survey with VST. In this work we analyse the surface brightness profiles, as well as the color profiles of the 19 bright ETGs inside the virial radius of the Fornax cluster, with the main aim of identify signatures of accretion onto galaxies by studying the presence of outer stellar halos, and understand their nature and occurrence. This analysis also provides a new and accurate estimate of the intra-cluster light inside the virial radius of Fornax.


We find that in the most massive and reddest ETGs the fraction of light in, probably accreted, halos is much larger than in the other galaxies. Less-massive galaxies have an accreted mass fraction lower than 30%, bluer colours and reside in the low-density regions of the cluster. Inside the virial radius of the cluster, the total luminosity of the intra-cluster light, compared with the total luminosity of all cluster members, is about 34%. Inside the Fornax cluster there is a clear correlation between the amount of accreted material in the stellar halos of galaxies and the density of the environment in which those galaxies reside. By comparing this quantity with theoretical predictions and previous observational estimates, there is a clear indication that the driving factor for the accretion process is the total stellar mass of the galaxy, in agreement with the hierarchical accretion scenario.

29/06/20 (Monday)
15:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — Stellar Collapse Diversity and the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background
Daniel Kresse (MPA)
15:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
ESO Cosmic Duologues
Edwin (Ted) Bergin & Alessandro Morbidelli (University of Michigan, USA & OCA, Nice, France)
25/06/20 (Thursday)
15:15, Webinar | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Our Galaxy in its infancy as traced by Gaia and complementary spectroscopic surveys
Paola Di Matteo (GEPI, Observatoire de Paris)
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Abstract

Reconstructing the past of the Milky Way depends on the study of its metal-poor stars, which either have been formed in the Galaxy itself in the first billion years, or have been accreted through mergers of satellite galaxies over time. These stars are usually found in what is known as the Milky Way halo, a light — in terms of total mass —  stellar component which is usually seen to contain stars whose kinematics significantly deviates from that of the Galactic disc.

In this talk, I will discuss how it has been possible to use the astrometric and spectroscopic data delivered by Gaia and complementary surveys  to shed light on the past of our Galaxy, through the study of its halo. Besides the discovery of the possible last significant merger experienced by the Milky Way, the use of 6D phase space information and chemical abundances allowed to reconstruct the impact this merger had on the early Milky Way disc, and the time it occurred, as well as to discover that some of the most metal-poor stars in the Galaxy possibly formed in a disc.  This last finding would implyt that the dissipative collapse that led to the formation of the old Galactic disc must have been extremely fast.

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24/06/20 (Wednesday)
15:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
USM Colloquium
Talk — A Bayesian Evaluation of the Odds of Abiogenesis and Intelligent Life
David Kipping (Columbia Univ. & Flatiron Inst.)
10:45, Webinar | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — Nebulosities of the symbiotic binary R Aquarii
Tiina Liimets (Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences)

Abstract

I will give an overview of the fascinating nebulae around one of the closest known symbiotic star R Aquarii.

Among other observational facilities, during the last 40 years, ESO telescopes and researchers, have played a crucial role in understanding the nature of this unique system. 

10:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
MPE-CAS Journal Club on Star and Planet Formation
Talk — Core Formation, Coherence and Collapse: A New Core Evolution Paradigm Revealed by Machine Learning
Jaime Pineda (MPE)
23/06/20 (Tuesday)
12:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — The 3D view on cosmic baryon cycle
Aleksandra Hamanowicz (ESO)

Abstract

Galaxies are constantly fed by the diffuse material from the intergalactic medium through the Circum-Galactic Medium (CGM). We can probe these vast gaseous halos around galaxies by studying absorbers detected in the spectra of bright background quasars. To understand the dynamics of the system we combine the physical properties from the absorption features with the broader view of the absorber’s host and its environment by emission diagnostics, using IFU spectroscopy. Gas travelling through the CGM enters a galaxy and replenishes the gas reservoirs which further transforms into molecular phase - the direct fuel of the star formation. Recent studies have suggested a possible link between the cosmic density of H2 - the most abundant molecule in the Universe - and the Star Formation History of the Universe. The second most abundant molecule, still linked to star formation, is CO and its rotational transitions are bright and relatively easy to observe with ALMA, allowing us to probe the molecular content of whole populations of galaxies.

In my talk, I will present the two surveys probing the gaseous content of galaxies in different phases: molecular within the galaxies and diffuse in the CGM. We combined MUSE and ALMA to understand the properties of host galaxies of quasar absorbers in the MUSE-ALMA Haloes Survey. Surprisingly, we found large fraction of groups associated with absorbers, which introduces a challenge in connecting CGM detected in absorption to a particular galaxy. Addressing the molecular gas content of galaxies, we turned towards the archival observations of ALMA calibrators, constructing ALMACAL-CO, blind CO emission-line survey. A survey is a part of the extensive science project ALMACAL, utilizing ALMA calibration data for scientific purposes. Thanks to a uniqueness of the ALMACAL dataset we are able to study galaxies over a wide area, and are not sensitive to the effects of cosmic variance. The results of the survey, confirm findings of other blind emission line searches: the shape of the molecular gas mass function mirrors star formation history of the Universe, suggesting that the molecular gas content of galaxies is closely linked to the evolution of SFH.

11:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Cosmology Seminar
Talk — Heart of Darkness: How galactic dynamics suppress star formation in galaxy spheroids
Jindra Gensior (Uni Heidelberg)
10:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Star and Planet Formation Seminar
Talk — Disk sub-structures from the variation of disk ionisation
Timmy Delage (MPIA Heidelberg)

Abstract

Disk ionisation is key in understanding how the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) operates to drive the turbulence in protoplanetary disks. In particular, ionisation drives the so-called “dead zones”.

Previous gas/dust evolution models have shown that dust particles can be efficiently trapped at the dead zone outer edge. Thus, it is a promising mechanism to explain some of the current ALMA observations of protoplanetary disks. However, most of those previous studies parametrised the Shakura-Sunyaev α radial profile, neglecting that it is actually entirely constrained and self-consistently derived from the disk properties and ionisation.

In this talk, I will present a module that allows to obtain a self-consistent α-parameter. Coupling that module to the gas/dust evolution model dustpy, we will have the tools to conduct end-to-end simulations that are crucial to understand how the disk properties and ionisation impact on the turbulence, radial drift, settling and diffusion processes of dust particles. Finally, these end-to-end simulations will improve our understanding of the current interpretation of observations.

22/06/20 (Monday)
17:15, Webinar | ESO Garching
Muenchener Physik Kolloquium
Talk — Floquet topological phases with ultracold atoms in periodically-driven lattices
Monika Aidelsburger (Physik, LMU)
15:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — The evolution of galaxy metallicity profiles: Are very efficient supernova-driven outflows required?
Rob Yates (MPA)
18/06/20 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — The Physics of Structure Formation
Raúl Angulo (Donostia International Physics Center)
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14:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Theoretical High Energy Physics Seminar
Talk — The GN bound and the KOTO anomaly
Jure Zupan (Cincinnati)
17/06/20 (Wednesday)
11:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
USM Colloquium
Talk — Star-forming regions in high-redshift galaxies
Anita Zanella (INAF/Padova)
10:45, Webinar | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — On the Stellar Spots Phenomenon of Extreme Horizontal Branch Stars
Yazan Al Momany (INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova)

Abstract

We have recently reported on the presence and diffusion of weak magnetic fields among the hot stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters. I will try to summarize the results of our survey that led to the identification of both periodic and periodic photometric variability; a twofold manifestation of the often elusive magnetic activity.

10:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
MPE-CAS Journal Club on Star and Planet Formation
Talk — Spectroscopic measurements of layered and mixed interstellar ice analogues
Birgitta Mueller (MPE)
16/06/20 (Tuesday)
12:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — Probing Universe's first moments - Looking for inflation with the new generation of CMB polarisation experiments
Clara Verges (AstroParticle and Cosmology Laboratory)

Abstract

Precise measurements of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies opened an unprecedented window on the primordial Universe. The next frontier in CMB science is the detection of polarisation B-modes, sourced by primordial gravitational waves emitted during inflation. Detecting B-modes would therefore be a smoking gun for inflation, a theory which awaits confirmation for almost 40 years!
 
However, this detection is particularly difficult because the primordial B-modes signal is very low, and is moreover shadowed by various sources of galactic and extra-galactic contamination: polarised dust, synchrotron radiation, weak gravitational lensing,…To achieve this, the next generation of CMB polarisation experiments needs not only to reach an unprecedented raw instrumental sensitivity, but also to be able to distinguish the B-modes signal from these contaminations. This calls for enhanced detection capabilities, new technologies, as well as novel data analysis methods.
 
In this talk, I will review challenges in B-modes detection, and present recent instrumental progress in CMB polarisation experiments and methods to efficiently clean the B-modes signal from spurious contamination.

11:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Cosmology Seminar
Talk — SDSS-based stellar population models
Claudia Maraston (Univ. of Portsmouth)
15/06/20 (Monday)
17:15, Webinar | ESO Garching
Muenchener Physik Kolloquium
Talk — Magic angle bilayer graphene U superconductors, orbital magnets, correlated states and beyond
Dmitri K. Efetov (ICFO, Barcelona)
15:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — Separate Universes and the position-dependence of galaxy formation
Alex Barreira (MPA)
12/06/20 (Friday)
11:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
MPE-CAS Journal Club on Star and Planet Formation
Talk — (topic to be announced)
Bo Zhao (MPE)
09/06/20 (Tuesday)
12:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — X-raying the stellar wind from massive stars using X-ray binaries
Victoria Grinberg (Tuebingen University)

Abstract

We are made of stardust—or, at least in significant parts, of material processed in stars. Hot, massive giant stars can drive the chemical evolution of galaxies and trigger and quench star formation through their strong winds and their final demise as supernovae. Yet optical and X-ray measurements of the wind mass loss strongly disagree and can only be reconciled if the winds are highly structured, with colder, dense clumps embedded in a tenuous hot gas. In (quasi-)single stars, however, wind properties are inferred for the whole wind ensemble only; no measurements of individual clumps or clump groups are possible, limiting our understanding of wind properties. Luckily, nature provides us with perfect laboratories to study clumpy winds: high mass X-ray binaries.

X-ray binaries are systems where a black hole or a neutron star accretes matter from the wind of a stellar companion. In high mass X-ray binaries, the companion is a massive supergiant and the compact object accretes material from its wind. The stellar wind drives changes in the accretion and thus the X-ray emission from the compact object. But the point-like X-ray source can also be used as an in-situ probe of the wind and enables us to study the large and small scale wind structures as well as the wind's interaction with the compact object.

In this talk, I will give an overview over wind studies with high mass X-ray binaries. I will then focus on two of the brightest high mass X-ray binaries, Cygnus X-1 and Vela X-1, with, respectively, a black hole accreting from an O-type star and a neutron star from a B-type star. In particularly, I will show how we can use low resolution high orbital cadence observations to constrain the intrinsic clumpy structure of the stellar wind and how time-resolved high resolution observations reveal the properties of both, the hot intra-clump medium and denser, colder wind clumps.

11:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Cosmology Seminar
Talk — Constraining the nature of dark matter with cosmological observations
Aurel Schneider (Uni. Zurich)
10:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Star and Planet Formation Seminar
Talk — Observing the gas component of circumplanetary disks around wide-orbit planet-mass companions
Christian Rab (University of Groningen)
08/06/20 (Monday)
17:15, Webinar | ESO Garching
Muenchener Physik Kolloquium
Talk — Photovoltaic technologies as key pillar to a solution of theurgent climate crisis
Eike Weber (ESMC/Univ. of California)
16:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
ESO Cosmic Duologues
Megan Schwamb & Sean Raymond (Queen's Univ.Belfast, UK & Univ. de Bordeaux, France)
15:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — Finding lensed quasars with time variability in imaging surveys
Dani Chao (MPA)
04/06/20 (Thursday)
15:15, Webinar | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Dark matter heats up in dwarf galaxies
Justin Read (University of Surrey)
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03/06/20 (Wednesday)
11:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
USM Colloquium
Talk — Advancements in numerical simulations of galaxy formation and evolution
Romain Teyssier (Univ. of Zurich)
10:45, Webinar | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — The outcome of massive star formation
María Claudia Ramirez Tannus (MPIA, Heidelberg)
02/06/20 (Tuesday)
14:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Star and Planet Formation Seminar
Talk — Size and structures of disks around Very Low Mass Stars in Taurus
Nicolas Kurtovic (MPIA, Heidelberg)
12:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — The diffuse intra-cluster component in the Virgo cluster
Alessia Longobardi (LAM)

Abstract

Structure evolution is now understood to be the products of a Hubble time's worth of merging, accretion, and interaction with the surrounding environment. This history is hidden, however, being quickly mixed into a smooth and, apparently, featureless distribution of baryons, or by being at surface brightness much fainter than the sky. The synergy between bright tracers, like Globular Clusters (GCs) and Planetary Nebulae (PNs), and multi-frequency data can solve both of these observational challenges allowing us to investigate the region in space where galaxy halos blend into the intra-cluster component (ICC), a direct product of the interactions within a cluster.
 
The focus of this talk will be on the nearby Virgo cluster where GCs and PNs have shown that the galaxy halos and the ICC are dynamically distinct with different parent stellar populations and progenitors. Finally, I will talk about some recent studies that used the wealth of multi-frequency data to detect for the first time diffuse intra-cluster dust in Virgo transported in the intra-cluster space through ram pressure and tidal stripping phenomena.

May 2020

28/05/20 (Thursday)
15:15, Webinar | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — The MIGHTEE Survey: Progress and Future Plans
Matt Jarvis (Oxford University)
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Abstract

The MIGHTEE large survey project is surveying four of the most well-studied extragalactic deep fields, totalling ~20 square degrees to micro-Jy sensitivity at Giga-Hertz frequencies, as well as an ultra-deep image of a single ~1 square degree MeerKAT pointing. The observations will provide radio continuum, spectral line and polarisation information. As such, MIGHTEE, along with the excellent multi-wavelength data already available in these deep fields, will allow a range of science to be achieved. Specifically, MIGHTEE is designed to significantly enhance our understanding of, (i) the evolution of AGN and star-formation activity over cosmic time, as a function of stellar mass and environment, free of dust obscuration; (ii) the evolution of neutral hydrogen in the Universe and how this neutral gas eventually turns into stars after moving through the molecular phase, and how efficiently this can fuel AGN activity; (iii) the properties of cosmic magnetic fields and how they evolve in clusters, filaments and galaxies. MIGHTEE will reach similar depth to the planned SKA all-sky survey, and thus will provide a pilot to the cosmology experiments that will be carried out by the SKA over a much larger survey volume.

In this talk, I will provide an overview of the MIGHTEE project, the current status of observations and some early science results.

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14:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Theoretical High Energy Physics Seminar
Talk — The mathematics of precision physics
Claude Duhr (CERN)
26/05/20 (Tuesday)
12:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Miroslava Dessauges (Geneva University)

Abstract

Clumpy rest-frame UV morphologies are ubiquitous among z=1-3 star-forming galaxies. We show that the stellar mass medians derived for different clump samples can vary by two orders of magnitude from 10^7 Msun to 10^9 Msun, depending on the spatial resolution and depth of the data analysed and the clump detection limit applied. To derive intrinsic clump masses and sizes in a prototypical clumpy galaxy, we have undertaken a detailed analysis of the Cosmic Snake at z=1.036. The Cosmic Snake is an exceptional gravitationally lensed clumpy galaxy, where we reach a significantly improved depth and unprecedented physical scale of 30-70 pc. The identified UV-bright clumps in the Cosmic Snake have masses spread between 10^6-10^8.5 Msun and radii between 35-300 pc. The comparison with the moderately amplified counter-image of the Cosmic Snake with a 300~pc resolution enables us to demonstrate that clumps are blended already at this resolution, but that the stellar mass of these blends overestimates the true clump mass at most by a factor of 5. As a result, it is the sensitivity threshold used for the clump selection that has the higher effect on the inferred masses, biasing the detection of clumps at the low-mass end, as also confirmed by our Halpha mock observations obtained from post-processed simulations of clumpy disk galaxies. Based on these findings, we compile a sample of the less affected clumps by sensitivity and spatial resolution effects currently known at z~1-3. We use this sample to obtain the first constraints on the mass function of high-redshift stellar clumps, which is found to be consistent with a power-law distribution of slope ~ -2, similarly to the young star clusters in nearby galaxies. This suggests that high-redshift clumps form under different gas conditions, but in a similar fashion to star clusters we see today. This is further confirmed by our ALMA CO(4-3) observations of the Cosmic Snake, which reveal 17 giant molecular clouds (GMCs). These GMCs are clearly different from their local analogues, being offset from the Larson scaling relations. We argue that GMCs must inherit their physical properties from the ambient ISM particular to the host galaxy. The measured large GMC masses demonstrate the existence of parent gas clouds with masses high enough to allow the in-situ formation of similarly massive stellar clumps seen in the Cosmic Snake galaxy in a comparable number to the GMCs. The comparison of the GMC masses and star cluster masses suggests a high efficiency of star formation, which anchors at z~1 the recently proposed scaling of the star formation efficiency with gas mass surface density.

11:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Cosmology Seminar
Talk — Ejective and Preventive: BH Feedback and its effects on the gas within and around galaxies in IllustrisTNG
Elad Zinger (MPIA)
10:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Star and Planet Formation Seminar
Talk — Massive discs around young stars
John Ilee (University of Leeds)
25/05/20 (Monday)
15:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — Measurement of the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect using Bayesian forward reconstruction of peculiar velocity
Minh Nguyen (MPA)
11:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
ESO Cosmic Duologues
Tereza Jerabkova & Andrew Hopkins (IAC/GTC, La Palma, Spain; Bonn University, Germany & AAO Macquarie - Macquarie University, Australia)
20/05/20 (Wednesday)
14:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — COVID-19’s impact on museums (and other visitor attractions)
Tania Johnston (ESO)

Abstract

Museums (and similar visitor attractions) have experienced unprecedented economic and social consequences in recent times due to the coronavirus. To better understand the status quo and what might come next, the Network of European Museum Organisations (NEMO) launched a survey to map COVID-19’s impact on the museum sector (mostly in Europe). The results are in and the report analyses and documents a sector that, although it is experiencing financial setbacks, is agile and able to adapt to the new normal.
I will present some of the results from this and other studies, whilst also highlighting the impacts on our ESO Supernova.

11:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
USM Colloquium
Talk — Deciphering Galaxy Formation: A combined approach from Simulations and Observations
Rhea-Silvia Remus (LMU Physik)
19/05/20 (Tuesday)
12:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — Barium stars as tracers of binary evolution in the Gaia era
Ana Escorza Santos (Institute of Astronomy, KU Leuven)

Abstract

About half of the stars in our Galaxy are born in binary systems meaning that their evolution might be affected by the presence of a companion. Many aspects of binary interaction are still unknown so understanding the products that result from interacting systems is crucial to unravel the physical mechanisms involved. A prototypical example of such post-interaction binary systems in the low- and intermediate-mass regime are Barium (Ba) stars. Ba stars are main-sequence or giant stars which show an enhancement of chemical elements that should not yet be overabundant at these evolutionary stages. Currently, it is widely accepted that these chemicals were transferred from a more evolved companion during a phase of mass transfer and that this companion evolved into a cool white dwarf. Understanding the orbital properties of these systems, as well as the stellar properties of the Ba star and its polluter, is the key to the system’s interaction history.

In the last years, the synergy between Gaia data, of unprecedented quality, high-resolution spectroscopy, long-term radial-velocity monitoring programmes, and state-of-the-art stellar and binary evolution models has contributed to a better understanding of the properties of Ba stars and provided new observational constraints to theoretical studies. The new Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams of Ba stars allowed us to accurately determine their evolutionary status and their masses. Additionally, we have recently determined the orbital properties of many main-sequence Ba stars, much less studied until now than their giant counterparts, which led to a thorough comparison of the properties of the two samples. The comparison between the distributions of masses, periods and eccentricities that resulted from this analysis allowed us to investigate the evolution of Ba-star systems between these two phases. Our models show that a second stage of binary interaction, this time between the main-sequence Ba star and its white-dwarf companion, also takes place in some systems, affecting the distribution of orbits observed among Ba giants.

18/05/20 (Monday)
15:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — Multi-phase ISM structure and galactic outflows with supernovae, stellar winds, radiation and cosmic rays
Tim-Eric Rathjen (MPA)
14/05/20 (Thursday)
15:15, Webinar | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation
Volker Springel (MPA)
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13/05/20 (Wednesday)
11:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
USM Colloquium
Talk — Machine Learning and Cosmology: An application to the halo mass function
Sebastian Bocquet (LMU Physik)
10:45, Webinar | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — The first ‘naked-eye’ black hole
Dietrich Baade (ESO)

Abstract

One of the largest quantitative discrepancies in the local Universe is that population-synthesis models predict between 108 and 109 black holes (BHs) in the Milky Way while only about two dozen have been detected.  Most of the detections were made in X-rays caused by mass accretion from a companion star.  Although the census of accreting BHs is incomplete due to strong extinction of the optical flux of the companions, there must be many X-ray-quiet BHs of which only 2 or 3 (not uncontroversial) examples have been found to date.  This Informal Discussion will be about a hierarchical triple system with a BH in the inner binary.  Since the BH is not accreting, it is just very dull.  However, its relative proximity to Earth (~300 pc) suggests that it is only the tip of a (black) iceberg.  The two luminous components will not also undergo supernova (SN) explosions.  The system may nevertheless be a local example of an architecture sometimes invoked for some GW sources.  Orbital parameters may also give hints at the properties of the SN explosion. 
The underlying paper by Rivinius, Baade, Hadrava, Heida, and Klement appeared in A&A, 637, L3:
https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2020/05/aa38020-20/aa38020-20.html

12/05/20 (Tuesday)
16:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Cosmology Seminar
Talk — The Angular Momentum of the Circumgalactic Medium in Illustris+TNG
Daniel DeFelippis (Columbia Uni.)
12:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — Sample return of primitive matter from the outer Solar System
Pierre Vernazza (AMU, LAM)

Abstract

The last thirty years of cosmochemistry and planetary science have shown that one major Solar System reservoir is vastly undersampled in the available suite of extra-terrestrial materials, namely small bodies that formed in the outer Solar System (>10AU). Because various dynamical evolutionary processes have modified their initial orbits (e.g., giant planet migration, resonances), these objects can be found today across the entire Solar System as P/D near Earth and main-belt asteroids, Jupiter and Neptune Trojans, comets, Centaurs, and small (diameter <200km) trans-Neptunian objects. This reservoir is of tremendous interest, as it is recognized as the least processed since the dawn of the Solar System and thus the closest to the starting materials from which the Solar System formed. Some of the next major breakthroughs in planetary science will come from studying outer Solar System samples (volatiles and refractory constituents) in the laboratory. Yet, this can only be achieved by an L-class mission that directly collects and returns to Earth materials from this reservoir. It is thus not surprising that two white papers advocating a sample return mission of a primitive Solar System small body (ideally a comet) were submitted to ESA in response to its call for ideas for future L-class missions in the 2035-2050 time frame. I will present an overview of the ideas listed in one of these two white papers and discuss how such a mission would be complementary to current and future ground based observations of primitive Solar System small bodies.
 

10:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Star and Planet Formation Seminar
Talk — Synthetic polarization maps around embedded protostars and ionization as a regulator of disk size
Michael Küffmeier (ZAH/ITA Heidelberg)
11/05/20 (Monday)
15:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
ESO Cosmic Duologues
Marta Volonteri & Tom Maccarone (IAP, France & Texas Tech University, USA)
15:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — Chiral gravitational waves from inflations
Leila Mirzagholi (MPA)
07/05/20 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Our astrochemical origins
Paola Caselli (MPE)
06/05/20 (Wednesday)
10:45, Webinar | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — The intriguing nature of red quasars
Gabriela Calistro Rivera (ESO)

Abstract

In this talk I will discuss the role played by quasars in the co-evolution of galaxies and black-holes and whether the diversity of quasar colours is explained solely by the AGN unification model or they represent different evolutionary stages. I will present a systematic study on the radio emission of SDSS quasars at low radio frequencies based on a synergy of the LOFAR deep field surveys and multi-wavelength surveys. Intriguingly, we find a large enhancement of radio detections in red quasars when compared to normal quasars and investigate their multi-wavelength SEDs and radio properties in order to characterise the origin of this difference. Our results, together with those from recent high-frequency radio studies, suggest the differences between red and blue quasars do not simply arise from viewing angle effects, but suggest an evolutionary origin.

05/05/20 (Tuesday)
16:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Cosmology Seminar
Talk — Cosmology with small galaxies: connecting ultrafaint dwarfs with Galactic assembly
Sownak Bose (CfA, Harvard Uni.)
12:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — Exploring interstellar medium conditions in local galaxies with integral field spectroscopy
Matilde Mingozzi (INAF, Padova)

Abstract

The evolution of a galaxy is a matter of synergy among diverse physical processes: some of them account for galaxy growth, while others regulate this growth. Since the interstellar medium (ISM) is the primary “repository” of galaxies, the study of its properties (e.g. density, extinction, ionization, metallicity) in different galaxy types and in different conditions within a galaxy through the use of integral field spectroscopy is fundamental to explore the different processes that affect its conditions and to assess their impact on the evolution of their hosts.

In the first part of this talk, I will discuss the results from the Measuring AGN under MUSE microscope (MAGNUM) survey. This survey comprises 9 local Seyfert galaxies, observed with the optical integral field spectrograph MUSE at the VLT, and characterised by extended outflows traced by the ionised gas. Specifically, we developed a novel approach based on the gas kinematics to disentangle high velocity gas in the outflow from gas in the disc. This allowed to spatially track the differences in the ISM properties of the two components, revealing the presence of an ionisation structure within the extended outflows that can be interpreted with different photoionisation and shock conditions, and tracing tentative evidence of positive feedback in a galaxy of the sample.

Finally, I will present a project focused on studying sistematically the impact of the ionisation parameter (i.e. a measure of the ionising photons with respect to the gas density) variations within galaxies on the measurement of metal abundances in the gas phase, using a sample of ~1800 star forming galaxies from the integral field unit Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) survey. I will show you how the still poorly understood ionization parameter is related with metallicity and other properties of galaxies (e.g. stellar mass), to what extent the inclusion of the [SIII]λλ9069,9532 lines can help to determine metallicity and ionization parameter, and how different photoionization models can relate with the observed line ratios.

04/05/20 (Monday)
17:15, Webinar | ESO Garching
Muenchener Physik Kolloquium
Talk — A century of Noether's theorem
Chris Quigg (Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois)
15:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — Time variable and spectral resolved Bayesian Imaging and the variable shadow of M87
Philipp Frank (MPA)

April 2020

30/04/20 (Thursday)
15:15, Webinar | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Mapping the hot Universe: the first six months of operations of eROSITA on SRG
Andrea Merloni (MPE)
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29/04/20 (Wednesday)
10:45, Webinar | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — How Astronomers Perceive the Societal Impact of Research: An Exploratory Study
Michelle Willebrands (Leiden Observatory)

Abstract

This exploratory work studies the perception of professional astronomers about the societal impact of astronomy. Ten semi-structured interviews with astronomers from a range of career and cultural backgrounds have been conducted to gain in-depth insight into their opinion about societal impact and their approach in realising it. The results show that the interviewees are aware of the diversity of impacts that astronomical research has. However, they are mostly active in outreach and only a few activities are incorporated into their jobs to achieve an impact on development. There is little contact with stakeholders in industry, policy or other fields, like development. Besides, a structured approach in their personal outreach is lacking, and assessment is only done informally. Despite the limited sample size of this study, the results indicate that a further change is necessary to engage professional astronomers with topics of development and societal impact to create action on the level of individual researchers.

28/04/20 (Tuesday)
16:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Cosmology Seminar
Talk — (topic to be announced)
Sam Gralla (Uni. Arizona)
12:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — Hunting for Giants with ESPRESSO
Daniel Bayliss (University of Warwick)

Abstract

We aim to test a key prediction of the theory of core accretion planet formation: that giant planets should be an order of magnitude rarer around low-mass (M dwarf) stars than around solar-mass stars. To do this we use a unique combination of HATSouth, GAIA, TESS, and ESO's new ESPRESSO spectrograph on the VLT.  Our aim is to discover transiting giant planets around M-dwarfs in the southern skies. I will highlight the discoveries that we have already made with this program, in particular focusing on our use of ESPRESSO/VLT.  I will then outline our plans to expand this survey using the full-frame image data from the TESS all-sky photometric survey.

27/04/20 (Monday)
15:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — Modelling IGM recombinations in large simulation for the Epoch of Reionization
Michele Bianco (MPA, long term visitor)
15:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
ESO Cosmic Duologues
Azadeh Fattahi & Federico Lelli (Durham, UK & Cardiff, UK)
23/04/20 (Thursday)
15:15, Webinar | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — The smallest dark matter halos
Simon White (MPA)
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22/04/20 (Wednesday)
11:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
USM Colloquium
Talk — The COMPLEX interplay between plasma physics and galaxy clusters
Klaus Dolag (LMU Physics)
10:45, Webinar | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — Accretion of a giant planet onto a white dwarf star
Boris T. Gänsicke (University of Warwick)

Abstract

As so often in astronomy, the discovery of the first giant planet in a close orbit around a white dwarf was not the culmination of a carefully crafted master plan, but occurred serendipitously. I will summarise how an initial moment of bewilderment turned into an exciting detective story, and ultimately led to a consistent physical model of the current state, and past evolution of this giant planet. From there, it was only one step further to realise that signatures of giant planets surviving the post-main sequence evolution of their host stars are likely to be common - and will eventually be visible to alien astronomers studying the remains of the solar system.

21/04/20 (Tuesday)
12:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — Untangling the spiders web
Mark Kennedy (Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics)

Abstract

Redbacks and black widows are binary star systems which host millisecond pulsar primaries. These spider systems are considered extremely important in understanding neutron star evolution as the second fastest rotating neutron star (PSR J0952-0607) and possibly one of most massive neutron stars (PSR J2215+5135) are a black widow and a redback respectively. Determining neutron star masses in spider systems relies on precise radio timing, optical photometry, and optical spectroscopy in order to determine the binary system parameters. In particular, the optical light curves of black widows indicate large temperature variations on the companions surface, which is often modeled as direct heating of the companions surface by the pulsar. This picture has been challenged in recent years, and in this talk I will discuss how these results may be affecting neutron star mass measurements.

20/04/20 (Monday)
15:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — The role of environment in galaxy formation and evolution
Reza Ayromlou (MPA)
16/04/20 (Thursday)
15:15, Webinar | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Testing general relativity and the massive black hole paradigm in the Galactic Center
Reinhard Genzel (MPE)
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15/04/20 (Wednesday)
10:45, Webinar | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — CArbon REduced (CARE) Conferences: considerations and concerns when conferencing virtually
Martha Merrow (LMU)

Abstract

Success in science correlates strongly with international (airplane) travel. This practice is increasingly at odds with the colleagues who study climate. In order to explore mechanisms to decrease professional air travel, we staged a CArbon REduced (CARE) conference. The CARE model is a hybrid virtual/live conference involving peripheral nuclei of attendees. We will use our conference format to address the issues that must be addressed to make CARE conferencing mainstream. One conclusion is that we will need to re-learn conferencing skills.

14/04/20 (Tuesday)
15:30, Webinar | ESO Garching
Cosmology Seminar
Talk — Let us bury the prehistoric h: arguments against using Mpc/h units in observational cosmology
Ariel Sanchez (MPE)
15:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Cosmology Seminar
Talk — The manifestation of secondary halo bias on the galaxy population
Antonio Montero Dorta (Uni. Sao Paulo)
12:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — Exoplanet detection and characterisation via high-contrast imaging observations
Valentina D'Orazi (INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova)

Abstract

High-contrast imaging techniques are rapidly evolving in the current years, thanks to the huge advancements in adaptive optics combined with coronagraphic observational strategies. 
In this talk, I will present some results obtained within the SHINE survey with SPHERE; moreover
I will introduce SHARK: a new facility that combining extreme adaptive optics with coronagraphy, dual-band imaging, and long-slit coronagraphic spectroscopy will be operating at LBT by the end of this year (2020). Very interesting, the two channels [SHARK+VIS and SHARK-NIR] will allow for the first time simultaneous observations from the B to the H bands: this is not currently available for any other instrumentation of this kind.
In the exoplanet framework, we aim at revealing (and characterising) relatively massive exoplanets at few tenths of arcsecond separations and contrasts around a few 10^-6.

08/04/20 (Wednesday)
10:45, Webinar | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — A look back, and one forward
Francesco Belfiore (ESO)

Abstract

In times of crisis, it may help to look back. Inspired by the discussion at the Science Coffee last week, where the autobiographies of famous astronomers in Annual Reviews were mentioned, I decided to take a look at this peculiar literary genre. I found the reading enlightening, at times funny and at times
enraging. I hope to give you some example of what I mean by that. I have chosen to focus on three stories for you: those of James Gunn, Edwin Salpeter and Vera Rubin. The two old men were picked at random, just because they were mentioned at Science Coffee. Vera Rubin is Vera Rubin, so I am sure you will understand why I chose her.

07/04/20 (Tuesday)
12:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — Binary compact objects across cosmic time
Michela Mapelli (INAF - Padova)

Abstract

The first direct detection of gravitational waves has confirmed the existence of binary black holes and opens a new window on the study of binary compact objects. In this talk, I will discuss the main astrophysical formation channels of binary compact objects in light of LIGO-Virgo data. On the one hand, models of stellar evolution and pair instability supernovae suggest a gap in the mass spectrum of black holes between ~60 and ~120 Msun. The boundaries of this gap depend on stellar rotation and on the efficiency of envelope removal. On the other hand, extreme dynamical processes in dense star clusters can fill the mass gap, via multiple stellar collisions and dynamical exchanges. Moreover, stellar dynamics enhances the formation of black hole - neutron star systems with extreme (<1:10) mass ratios. Based on a data-driven model, I will discuss the merger history of dynamical versus isolated binary compact objects across cosmic time, and its dependence on the cosmic star formation rate and on the stellar metallicity. Finally, I will show that the merger rate per galaxy mostly depends on the total stellar mass and on the star formation rate.

06/04/20 (Monday)
15:15, Webinar | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — Does Nature use neutral beams for interstellar plasma heating around compact objects?
Eugene Churazov (MPA)
01/04/20 (Wednesday)
10:45, Webinar | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — Satellite mega-constellations: what are they, what's the problem, and what can we do about them?
Olivier Hainaut & Andrew Williams (ESO)

Abstract

Olivier Hainaut will give a short description of what is a satellite constellation and of why they are useful, then discuss of the current plans by satellite operators (SpaceX, Amazon, Samsung, and many others...). He will show some simulations of the effect on astronomical observations (from naked-eye to ELT), and quantify these effects.

Andrew Williamns will discuss the regulatory situation for these satellite operators, and discuss how the current international treaties could be expanded to protect the night sky.

March 2020

25/03/20 (Wednesday)
10:45, Webinar | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — Q&A session on the ELT telescope
Jason Spyromilio (ESO)

Abstract

The ELT telescope is under construction. In this informal discussion we offer a Question and Answer session on the telescope system. Do you have questions about how the primary mirror works, how the segments are made, the shape of the other mirrors, why is M4 deformable, what does M5 do, how many guide probes do we use, what is a phasing station, is the dome really that big, how much does the telescope weigh, how will we point the telescope? Or more?
 

24/03/20 (Tuesday)
12:00, Webinar | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — Common envelope evolution: From binary star chrysalis to cosmic butterfly
David Jones (IAC)

Abstract

Planetary nebulae are some of the most strikingly beautiful astrophysical phenomena known, gracing many a glossy-paged, coffee-table book and earning them the nickname "cosmic butterflies". While classical stellar evolutionary theory states that all intermediate mass stars should produce a planetary nebula, forming as the star leaves the Asymptotic Giant Branch and evolves towards the white dwarf phase, it is now clear that a significant fraction of planetary nebulae originate from a binary evolutionary pathway. As the immediate products of the common envelope, close-binary central stars of planetary nebulae offer a unique tool with which to study this rather poorly understood phase of binary evolution. Furthermore, as the nebula itself represents the ionised remnant of the ejected common-envelope, such planetary nebulae can be used to directly probe the mass, morphology and dynamics of the ejecta. Here, I will summarise our current understanding of the importance of binarity in the formation of planetary nebulae as well as what they can tell us about the common envelope phase - including the possible relationships with other post-common-envelope phenomena like novae and type Ia supernovae.

11/03/20 (Wednesday)
10:45, Auditorium Telescopium (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — JWST - overview and training on proposal tools
Dominika Wylezalek (ESO)

Abstract

The James Webb Space Telescope, also called Webb or JWST, is a large, space-based observatory, optimized for infrared wavelengths, which will complement and extend the discoveries of the Hubble Space Telescope. It launches in 2021.

It will cover longer wavelengths of light than Hubble and will have greatly improved sensitivity. The longer wavelengths enable JWST to look further back in time to see the first galaxies that formed in the early universe, and to peer inside dust clouds where stars and planetary systems are forming today." -- https://jwst.nasa.gov

In light of the upcoming proposal deadline of the first open call for proposals, I will give an overview about the general capabilities of JWST, its instruments and will give a live demonstration of the various tools (visibility calculator, exposure time calculator, astronomer's proposal tool) that are needed to prepare a JWST proposal.

I will also share some tips and tricks and lessons learnt from preparing our successful JWST Early Release Science Program Q3D (http://www.stsci.edu/jwst/observing-programs/approved-ers-programs/program-1335).

 

NOTE: Due to the current spread of COVID-19 ESO management decided to cancel all meetings with external participation until the end of March. As such this Informal Discussion will go ahead for ESO staff only.

10/03/20 (Tuesday)
10:00, MPA Large Seminar Room E.0.11 (MPA, Garching) | ESO Garching
ORIGINS/MIAPP Dark Matter Science Day
Talk — ORIGINS/MIAPP Dark Matter Science Day
Various speakers

Abstract

Agenda: https://indico.ph.tum.de/event/4431/

09/03/20 (Monday)
15:30, MPA Large Seminar Room E.0.11 (MPA, Garching) | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — The rocky road to quiescence: witnessing the compaction and quenching of quasar hosts at z~2
Hannah Stacey (MPA)
10:45, Auditorium Telescopium (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
KES: Knowledge Exchange Series
Talk — ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope and its instruments
Suzanne Ramsay (ESO)

Abstract

This KES lecture will cover the current status of ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope and of the powerful instrument suite that is being designed and built to meet the science case for the ELT. In addition, I aim to give some insight into how such ambitious programmes, like the ELT, come to life. The challenge of building the instruments is greater than anything the ground-based astronomical community has previously attempted, thanks to the size of the telescope and the drive towards reaching diffraction limited observations. The basic concept and scientific capabilities of the first six instruments that are being developed will be summarised.

04/03/20 (Wednesday)
10:45, Library (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — VEXAS: VISTA Extension to Auxiliary Surveys
Chiara Spiniello (INAF)

Abstract

Over the last decade,  surveys like the SDSS, DES, KiDS, VHS, AllWISE, The Two Micron All Sky Survey, The Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey, etc, have provided new insights into the physics of objects on all scales from giants early-type galaxies (ETGs) to faint and compact stellar systems, and at all distances from the structure and dynamics of our own galaxy to high-redshift quasars.  

In this informal discussion,  I will start describing few particular scientific problems that can be solved by means of multi-band colors and magnitudes:  object classification, search for strongly lensed quasars, photometric redshifts calculation, identification of high-z galaxies or extremely red objects, focusing in particular on the first two.

I will demonstrate that a wide wavelength coverage is fundamental in these cases and thus introduce the VISTA EXtension to Auxiliary Surveys (VEXAS) project that aims at building the widest and deepest public optical-to-IR photometric and spectroscopic database in the southern hemisphere.

03/03/20 (Tuesday)
12:00, Auditorium Telescopium (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — Mass assembly history in low-density environments
Enrica Iodice (INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte & ESO)

Abstract

The large-scale structure (LSS) of the universe is made by a network of groups and clusters of galaxies, extended filaments and voids (e.g. Peebles, 1980). According to the Lambda-Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) galaxy formation theory, the clusters of galaxies in the LSS are expected to grow over time by accreting smaller groups along filaments, driven by the effect of gravity generated by the total matter content (e.g. Bond & Szalay 1983).

In the deep potential well at the cluster centre, the galaxies continue to undergo active mass assembly and, in this process, gravitational interactions and merging between systems of comparable mass and/or smaller objects play a fundamental role in defining the galaxies' morphology and the build-up of the stellar halos. This is an extended (≥ 100 kpc) and faint (μg ≥ 26 - 27 mag/arcsec^2) component made of stars stripped from satellite galaxies, in the form of streams and tidal tails, with multiple stellar components and complex kinematics (see Duc 2017, Mihos 2017 as reviews). During the infall of groups of galaxies to form the cluster, the material stripped from the galaxy outskirts builds up the intra-cluster light, ICL (De Lucia & Blaizot 2007; Puchwein  et al. 2010; Cui et al. 2014). This is a diffuse and very faint component (μg ≥ 28 mag/arcsec^2) that grows over time with the mass assembly of the cluster, to which the relics of the interactions between galaxies (stellar streams and tidal tails) also contribute. 

In this framework, exploring the low surface brightness (LSB) universe is a crucial ingredient to map the mass assembly of galaxies at all scales (from galaxies to clusters) and in all environments (in the low-density groups of galaxies as well as in rich clusters), to constrain their formation within the LCDM paradigm. 

In this talk, I will focus on the low-density environments as group of galaxies and on the main results obtained by exploring them at the LSB regime, by using deep imaging data from the VEGAS survey.

10:00, Fornax (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
Star and Planet Formation Seminar
Talk — The inner few au of protoplanetary discs probed with NIR interferometry
Maria Koutoulaki (ESO)

Abstract

A first step towards understanding planetary formation is the characterisation of the structure and evolution of protoplanetary discs. Although the large scale disc is understood in some detail, much less is known about the inner 5 au in which the main physical processes take place: accretion, ejection, and planetary formation. Even in the nearest sites of star formation, this region cannot be spatially resolved by stand-alone telescopes; only in recent years have optical and infrared interferometers been able to achieve this, and only in the case of the brightest sources.

02/03/20 (Monday)
15:30, MPA Large Seminar Room E.0.11 (MPA, Garching) | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — Core-collapse supernova explosions boosted by pre-collapse perturbations
Robert Bollig (MPA)

February 2020

28/02/20 (Friday)
15:00, Library (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
Galaxy Cluster Discussion Group
Talk — Cold gas in galaxies in a z=2.5 protocluster
Minju Lee (MPE)
11:00, MPA Old Lecture Hall 401 | ESO Garching
High Energy Seminar
Talk — Powering galactic super-winds with small-scale AGN winds
Tiago Costa (MPA)
27/02/20 (Thursday)
14:00, MPA Large Seminar Room E.0.11 (MPA, Garching) | ESO Garching
Special High Energy Seminar
Talk — The Formation and Growth of Supermassive Black Holes in the Early Universe
Christina Eilers (MIT)
14:00, MPA Old Lecture Hall 401 | ESO Garching
MPA Talk
Talk — Astromedley: from plasma instability to binary stars
Olga Lebiga (PhD candidate)
11:10, Library (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
AGN Club
Talk — Powering galactic super-winds with small-scale AGN winds
Tiago Costa (MPA)
11:00, MPE Seminar Room 1.1.18b | ESO Garching
MPE Talk
Talk — Planet Formation around Supermassive Black Holes
Keiichi Wada (Kagoshima University)

Abstract

Without doubt, planets are formed from proto-planetary disks around stars, and about four thousand exoplanets have been discovered until now.  However, proto-planetary disks may not be the only site of forming planets in the universe. Here we propose a novel site for planet formation, namely circumnuclear gas disks around supermassive black holes (SMBHs).   Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to be surrounded by dense, dusty gas, which obscures the emission from the accretion disks. As a result, there should be a cold dust disk beyond several parsecs from the AGN. Recently we investigated growth history from sub-micron sized icy monomers to km-sized planetesimals in circumnuclear disks around SMBHs, based on recent plausible theories of planetesimal formation around stars. We expect that numerous (> 104 pc-2)  "blanets" = black hole planets whose masses are ~ 10 Earth-mass could be formed around some AGNs.

26/02/20 (Wednesday)
10:45, Library (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — Galaxy evolution in over-dense environments
Remco van der Burg (ESO)

Abstract

The most dramatic event in the course of a galaxy’s evolution is when it stops forming stars, or quenches. Besides that galaxies quench by internally-driven mechanisms, they also do so as a strong function of their environment - from sparsely populated voids to the densest galaxy clusters. Thanks to large surveys such as SDSS, we have obtained an increasingly clear picture of the particular role of environment in the quenching of galaxies. While this has led to an empirical model that has been successful in describing the basics of galaxy quenching in the local Universe, this model needs to be revised in the more distant (z>~1) Universe. I will first describe where we currently stand in our understanding of environmentally-driven quenching, and then highlight the challenges we face when confronted with data taken of the distant Universe.

25/02/20 (Tuesday)
12:00, Auditorium Telescopium (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — Young Suns Exoplanet Survey (YSES) reveals planets, brown dwarfs, and disks in Sco-Cen
Alexander Bohn (Leiden Observatory)

Abstract

We observe a homogeneous sample of 72 solar-mass members of the approximately 16 Myr-old Lower Centaurus-Crux subgroup of the Scorpius-Centaurus association (Sco-Cen). We obtained two minutes total integration for each of the 72 targets using VLT/SPHERE/IRDIS. We construct a reference library of point spread functions from all the observed target stars and apply principal component analysis to remove the effects of the stellar halo. Despite the very short integration time, we are able to detect 10 Jupiter-mass objects at separations of 0.2 arcseconds and in the background limited regime we are sensitive to companions with masses as low as 3 Jupiter masses.

The first epoch observations already reveal a shadowed transition disk around Wray 15-788 that shows signs of ongoing planet formation. Second epoch observations of only five systems confirm two sub-stellar companions at wide separations (>150au) by common proper motion analysis. Comparison to evolutionary models of sub-stellar objects provides preliminary estimates of approximately 14 and 30 Jupiter masses.

With additional follow-up observations of the remaining 49 systems that host low-mass companion candidates, our survey will finally provide a complete census of wide orbit sub-stellar companions to a statistically highly significant sample of young, solar-type stars.

24/02/20 (Monday)
10:45, Auditorium Telescopium (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
KES: Knowledge Exchange Series
Talk — Detector systematic effects and your science
Liz George (ESO)

Abstract

As astronomy enters the regime of precision science, astronomical instruments (and their detectors) are pushed ever closer to their technological limits. The quality and noise performance of detectors has improved over the years to the point that small systematic effects can now dominate the error budgets of astronomical instruments. I will go over some common systematic effects found in astronomical detectors, demonstrate what impacts they could have on various science cases, and give some practical strategies for how you, the astronomer, can get involved in ensuring that detector systematic effects don’t limit the science you want to do.

21/02/20 (Friday)
15:00, Library (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
Galaxy Cluster Discussion Group
Talk — The Thermodynamic Properties in Cluster Outskirts: from X-COP to High-z SPT Clusters
Vittorio Ghirardini (MPE)
11:00, MPA Old Lecture Hall 401 | ESO Garching
High Energy Seminar
Talk — Towards a 3D View of Galactic Interstellar Matter: Clouds and Cavities Both Have Something to Say
Rosine Lallement (GEPI, Observ. de Paris)
20/02/20 (Thursday)
11:00, TUM Physik, Garching | ESO Garching
ORIGINS Cluster Visitor Talk
Andreas Gaertner (University of Alberta)

Abstract

In the search for astrophysical neutrinos, neutrino telescopes instrument large volumes of clear natural water. Photomultiplier tubes placed along mooring lines detect the Cherenkov light of secondary particles produced in neutrino interactions. This allow us to search for possible neutrino sources in the sky.

To overcome the challenges of deep underwater experiments, we are developing prototype mooring lines in collaboration with Ocean Networks Canada, an initiative of the University of Victoria, which provides the infrastructure for many Oceanographic instruments.

The STRAW mooring lines were deployed in June 2018, and provide continuous monitoring of optical water properties at a new possible detector site in the Pacific. Their successor STRAW-b, currently under development at the TUM Physics Department, will complement the measurements of STRAW. We test new engineering and deployment strategies, scaleable for larger setups with up to one hundred mooring lines.

19/02/20 (Wednesday)
10:45, Library (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — Short-wavelenght excess emission due to gas accretion: From pre-main-sequence stars to planets
Yuhiko Aoyama (Tsinghua University)

Abstract

In some pre-main-sequence stars such as T Tauri  stars, the short-wavelength (high-energy) flux is stronger than what is  predicted by the rest of the SED, which peaks longwards of the visible.  The most reliable explanation for this excess emission is that these young stars are still accreting from their  protoplanetary disk. Indeed, the release of gravitational energy lets  the accreting gas reach temperatures of 10^5 K or more, while keeping  the stellar photospheric temperature low.

Very recently, such high-energy excess photons from  planets were also detected, in part with high spectral resolution. These  observations are a precious clue to understanding the timescales of  planet formation and the geometry of the accretion.

 

18/02/20 (Tuesday)
16:15, MPP, Freimann, Munich | ESO Garching
MPP Kolloquium
Talk — Searching for Gamma-ray Spiders
Colin Clark (AEI, Hannover)
12:00, Auditorium Telescopium (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — W0830: an extremely cold, missing-link planetary-mass object
Daniella Bardalez Gagliuffi (American Museum of Natural History)

Abstract

In this talk, I will present an extremely cold, planetary-mass brown dwarf which bridges the temperature gap between the known brown dwarf population and the coldest brown dwarf ever discovered. W0830 was identified through the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 citizen science collaboration, which brings together over 150,000 people around the world in identifying cold, fast-moving sources through a series of WISE images. W0830 is a red, fast-moving source with a faint W2 detection and an upper limit in W1 photometry in multi-epoch AllWISE images. We have characterized this object with Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope follow-up photometry. The available evidence points to a Y1 source at Teff ~ 350 K with a planetary mass of 4-13Mjup, as extrapolated from the known Y dwarf population. This object joins a small, yet growing sample of “missing link” objects connecting brown dwarfs to giant planets in terms of temperature.

11:00, MPA Old Lecture Hall 401 | ESO Garching
Cosmology Seminar
Talk — Galaxy cluster masses and the surrounding velocity field
Anton Bauchev (Dubna)
10:00, Fornax (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
Star and Planet Formation Seminar
Talk — Constraints on accreting giant planets with hydrogen-line observations
Yuhiko Aoyama & Gabriel-Dominique Marleau (Tsinghua University & Universität Tübingen)

Abstract

Recent observations have revealed protoplanets embedded in protoplanetary disks, providing precious clues towards understanding the timescale and dynamics of planet formation. Particularly, the detected Hα emission suggests temperatures of ~10 eV. Gas accreting onto forming giant planets, and forming an accretion shock, is a convincing candidate.

To shed light on this emission, we have constructed a numerical model of shock-heated gas with cooling, chemical reactions, and non-equilibrium radiative transfer in the postshock region. We also take into account the absorption of the radiation by the preshock gas. We present and apply this model to recent observational results and demonstrate how spectrally-resolved emission lines constraint the properties of forming gas giants.

17/02/20 (Monday)
15:30, MPA Old Lecture Hall 401 | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — Studying the effect of AGN driven outflows on a stellar-feedback regulated ISM
Rebekka Bieri (MPA)
14/02/20 (Friday)
10:00, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
ESO workshop
Various speakers

Abstract

ESO Mini-workshop

ESO Auditorium "Eridanus", 14 February 2020

Women in STEM and the challenges they face

10:00 - 10:30 Chiara Pedersoli (OHB System AG): “A dream comes true? My experience in the European space industry”

10:30 - 11:00 Constanza Araujo Hauck (ESO): “Challenges of being a woman in engineering” (TBC)

11:00 - 11:30 Nando Patat (ESO): “Gender bias in telescope time allocations”

11:30 - 12:00 Mariella Stockkamp (LMU): “Facilitating Women - Interrupting the Process of Stereotype Threat”

12:00 - 12:30 Open discussion

 

Organized by: ESO Diversity & Inclusion Committee

In celebration of the United Nations International Day of Women and Girls in Science on Tuesday 11 February

13/02/20 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Information field theory: from astronomical imaging to artificial intelligence
Torsten Enßlin (MPA)
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Abstract

Turning the raw data of an instrument into  high-fidelity pictures of the Universe is a central theme in astronomy. Information field theory (IFT) describes probabilistic image reconstruction from incomplete and noisy data exploiting all available information. Astronomical applications of IFT are galactic tomography, gamma- and radio- astronomical imaging, and the analysis of cosmic microwave background data. This talk introduces into the basic ideas of IFT, highlights its astronomical applications, and explains its relation with contemporary artificial intelligence.

Video

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11:10, Library (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
AGN Club
Talk — Signatures of AGN feedback across cosmic time
Dominika Wylezalek (ESO)
12/02/20 (Wednesday)
15:00, MPA Old Lecture Hall 401 | ESO Garching
High Energy Seminar
Talk — MAGIC telescopes
Razmik Mirzoyan (MPP)
10:45, Library (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — The Gender Gap in Astronomy
Francesca Primas (ESO)

Abstract

Back in 2018, the interdisciplinary project "A Global Approach to the Gender Gap in Mathematical and Natural Sciences: How to Measure It, How to Reduce It?” launched a Joint Global Survey to learn about the educational and career paths of scientists and academics with a degree and/or a professional career in STEM. The survey collected more than 30,000 responses, from all over the world and from six different scientific disciplines. After a short introduction to the project, I will highlight and discuss the main results of the Joint Global Survey for the field of astronomy, and compare them to the other research fields and across geographical areas.

11/02/20 (Tuesday)
16:15, MPP, Freimann, Munich | ESO Garching
MPP Kolloquium
Talk — The structure of collider events
Gavin Salam (CERN)
15:00, MPE Seminar Room 1.1.18a | ESO Garching
MPE Colloquium
Talk — Dwarf Galaxies - Fossils of Galaxy Evolution
Eva Grebel (Uni Heidelberg)
11:30, MPA Large Seminar Room E.0.11 (MPA, Garching) | ESO Garching
Cosmology Seminar
Talk — Star formation - Making complex things understandable
Guang-Xing Li (Yunnan University)
11:00, MPA Large Seminar Room E.0.11 (MPA, Garching) | ESO Garching
Cosmology Seminar
Talk — Strong gravitational lensing as a cosmological probe: new ways of constraining dark matter
Ana Diaz Rivero (Harvard)
10/02/20 (Monday)
15:30, MPA Large Seminar Room E.0.11 (MPA, Garching) | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — Gravitational waves from axion-SU(2) gauge fields: Kinetically driven inflation
Yuki Watanabe (MPA)
07/02/20 (Friday)
16:00, MPA Large Seminar Room E.0.11 (MPA, Garching) | ESO Garching
Career Seminar
Talk — From Astronomy to Medical Physics: Treatment Planning for Radiosurgery
Philipp Plewa (Advanced Software Engineer at Brainlab)
15:00, MPE Seminar Room 1.1.18b | ESO Garching
ORIGINS Cluster Visitor Talk
Talk — The molecular gas content of (obscured) high-z Quasars
Marcella Brusa (University of Bologna, Italy)
10:30, IPP Lecture Hall D2 (IPP, Garching) | ESO Garching
MPP Kolloquium
Talk — Genetics and neurobiology of willpower: why some people can resit tempations better
Irina Yakutenko (ITAR TASS)
06/02/20 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Star-Forming GMCs Regulated by Feedback
Eve Ostriker (Princeton University)
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Abstract

Giant molecular clouds (GMCs) are the home of the most extreme conditions and the most dramatic events found in the interstellar medium (ISM). As hosts of the densest, coldest portion of the ISM’s gas, gravitational collapse is inevitable, and leads to the formation of star clusters. These young star clusters, in turn, host massive and luminous stars that profoundly alter — and ultimately destroy — their birth clouds, by a combination of photoevaporation, radiation forces on dust, and strong shocks from winds and supernovae. Because GMCs are porous, the energy injected by massive stars also escapes to power the surrounding ISM. Given the complex array of processes involved, numerical simulations are essential to developing quantitative models of the lives and deaths of star-forming GMCs. In this talk, I will describe results from recent radiation (magneto-) hydrodynamic simulations that have helped us to understand how star-forming GMCs self-regulate, while simultaneously regulating the thermal, ionization, and turbulent states of the distant diffuse ISM.

Video

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14:00, TUM Garching, Physik Department, HS 3 | ESO Garching
Theoretical High Energy Physics Seminar
Talk — Phenomenology of a rolling axion in the early and late universe
Marco Peloso (Univ. of Padova)
13:00, Library (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
ESO Talk
Talk — Developments in CMOS Image Sensors for Single Photon Counting
Konstantin Stefanov and Martin Prest (Center for Electronic Imaging, The Open University)

Abstract

ESO and OU are collaborating on a new visible light CMOS image sensor design based on a pinned photodiode (PPD) with multiple charge transfers and sampling to allow single photon sensitivity. In the proposed sensor architecture, the photogenerated signal is sampled non-destructively multiple times and the results are averaged. Each signal measurement is statistically independent and by averaging, the readout noise is reduced to a level where single photons can be distinguished reliably. A pixel design using this method has been simulated in TCAD and layouts have been generated for a 180 nm CMOS image sensor process. Using simulations, the noise performance of the pixel has been determined. The strengths and the limitations of the proposed design are discussed, including the trade-off between noise performance and readout rate and the impact of charge transfer inefficiency. The projected performance of our first prototype device indicates that single photon imaging is within reach and could enable ground-breaking performance in many scientific and industrial imaging applications. We will also discuss the potential uses of this detector type for astronomy and welcome robust discussion in the Q&A session about the how this sensor could be used in future astronomical instruments.

11:00, MPE room III X2 209 | ESO Garching
MPE Seminar
Talk — When Galaxy Clusters Collide: Shocking tales of structure formation
Andra Stroe (CfA, Harvard-Smithsonian)
04/02/20 (Tuesday)
16:15, MPP, Freimann, Munich | ESO Garching
MPP Kolloquium
Talk — Precision collider physics with effective field theory
Thomas Becher (Univ. of Bern)
12:00, Library (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — The AGN impact on the Host Galaxy ISM in the Local Universe
Fancesco Salvestrini (University of Bologna & ESO)

Abstract

Local Seyfert galaxies are the perfect laboratories to study whether and to what extent the emission from the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) affects the properties of the host-galaxy interstellar medium (ISM). This can be achieved through a multi-wavelength strategy, which allows us to fully characterise the sources in terms of AGN activity and host-galaxy properties (e.g., star formation rate, galaxy stellar mass, different gas phases).

In this work, we focused our attention on a sample of mid-IR selected Seyfert galaxies in the local Universe, which benefits from an extensive data coverage. In particular, we performed a systematic study of their nuclear activity through broad-band X-ray spectral analysis, necessary to unveil the intrinsic AGN luminosity and the level of obscuration. Exploiting mm observations (from ALMA and APEX), we characterised the host-galaxies in terms of the molecular gas component.

11:00, MPA Large Seminar Room E.0.11 (MPA, Garching) | ESO Garching
Cosmology Seminar
Talk — Cosmology as a search for neutrinos and new light particles
Amol Upadhye (UNSW Sydney)
10:15, Octans (ESO room E.2.41) | ESO Garching
Star and Planet Formation Seminar
Talk — Deuterium fractionation during high mass star-formation
Dominik Schleicher (University of Concepción)

Abstract

In star-forming cores and filaments, high deuteration fractions have been inferred via APEX and ALMA observations, through the comparison of deuterated and non-deuterated species like N2D+ and N2H+. As the deuteration process occurs as a result of non-equilibrium chemistry, the deuteration fraction is often considered as a potential chemical clock to determine approximate ages in prestellar cores. To investigate this possibility, we have conducted 3D magneto-hydrodynamical simulations including a network for deuteration chemistry by Walmsley et al., to explore how deuterium fractionation builds up under realistic conditions. We show that the observed fractions can be reached within about a collapse time for a vast range of possible conditions. I will also present extensions of these simulations towards filaments and including freeze-out on dust grains.

03/02/20 (Monday)
17:15, LMU H030, Schellingstr. 4, Munich | ESO Garching
Muenchener Physik Kolloquium
Talk — Dynamic properties of energy materials from first-principles
David Egger (TUM)

January 2020

31/01/20 (Friday)
14:00, MPA Large Seminar Room E.0.11 (MPA, Garching) | ESO Garching
Bayes Forum
Talk — A Bayesian approach to derive the kinematics of gravitationally lensed galaxies
Francesca Rizzo (MPA)
11:00, MPA Old Lecture Hall 401 | ESO Garching
High Energy Seminar
Talk — On Dynamo amplification and magnetic driven outflows
Ulrich Steinwandel (USM/MPA)
30/01/20 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — The Spiral Structure of the Milky Way
Mark J. Reid (Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian)
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Abstract

The Bar and Spiral Structure Legacy (BeSSeL) Survey uses Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) to provide  trigonometric parallax measurements for O-type stars across the Milky Way.  The Survey is named for Friedrich Bessel, who measured the first stellar parallax using the last telescope built by Muenchen's Joseph Fraunhofer.  I will show Bessel's original data and comment on its accuracy.

There are now about 200 parallaxes measured with VLBI, and these are accurately tracing spiral structure of the Milky Way, the distance to its center, its rotation curve, and the location of the Sun.  We have developed a Bayesian approach to leverage these results to estimate distances to large numbers of sources from surveys based only on Galactic coordinates and velocities.  Using this program we can make a realistic visualization of the Milky Way.

Additionally, our results make strong predictions for the distance of the Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar, assuming its orbital decay from gravitational radiation follows General Relativity, and for the proper motion of Sgr A*, if indeed it is a supermassive black hole.

Video

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14:00, TUM Garching, Physik Department, HS 3 | ESO Garching
Theoretical High Energy Physics Seminar
Talk — The Swampland: Consistency constraints on effective theories from quantum gravity
Eran Palti (MPP)
11:10, Library (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
AGN Club
Talk — The Lx-Luv relation in high-redshift quasars and its use for cosmology
Francesco Salvestrini (DiFA - Bologna Univ.)
11:00, MPA Old Lecture Hall 401 | ESO Garching
Cosmology Lectures
Talk — Numerical Methods for Cosmology
Linda Blot (MPA)
29/01/20 (Wednesday)
10:45, Library (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — White dwarfs: a window on the composition of (rocky) exo-planets
Nicola Gentile Fusillo (ESO)

Abstract

The vast majority of all stars, including virtually all known planet hosts (and our own Sun), will end their lives as white dwarfs: small and dense stellar embers.

Planetary system can survive the late evolution of their host star and remnants of these planets can be observed as pollutants in the otherwise pristine atmospheres of some white dwarfs. Spectroscopic observation and accurate modelling of these polluted white dwarf allows to study the bulk composition of rocky exo-planets, a property simply inaccessible by radial velocity and transit observations of planets around main sequence stars. 

I will give a brief overview of the state of the art of this promising field and present some recent exciting results.

28/01/20 (Tuesday)
16:15, MPP, Freimann, Munich | ESO Garching
MPP Kolloquium
Talk — eROSITA and the Science of Neutron Stars
Werner Becker (MPE)
12:00, Auditorium Telescopium (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — The Cosmic Evolution of Cold Gas from A3COSMOS: New Constraints and Implications for Galaxy Evolution at z~0-6
Daizhong Liu (MPIA Heidelberg)

Abstract

A galaxy's cold gas reservoir determines the rate at which it can be forming stars, therefore measuring the cosmic evolution of the cold gas mass of galaxies is critical to our understanding of galaxy evolution. Obtaining such measurements for large samples of galaxies is still challenging even in the ALMA era. Earlier studies of the cosmic gas evolution explored up to about z~3 and show significant discrepancies. As the (sub-)millimeter dust continuum has now been established as reliable tracer by several studies, we have conducted an effort to exploit the public ALMA archive data in the COSMOS deep field, in a coherent, systematic way to quantify systematic biases in using dust continuum to infer cold gas mass and determining cosmic gas evolution. Our project A3COSMOS recently published ~2000 ALMA images covering ~230 sq. arcmin with over 1500 high-confidence (spurious fraction <10%) ALMA detections based on our characterized statistics. These result in a robust galaxy catalog of ~700 galaxies, and newly constrained empirical gas fraction and depletion time evolution function published with our papers. Finally, I will present our derived cosmic cold gas evolution out to z~6, and detail the implications for galaxy evolution and cosmological simulations. 

11:00, MPA Large Seminar Room E.0.11 (MPA, Garching) | ESO Garching
Cosmology Seminar
Talk — Ghost free coupling between bosons and fermions/ Kaluza Klein scenario with cuscuto
Yuki Sakakihara (Sun Yat-sen Univ.)
27/01/20 (Monday)
17:15, HS2, Physik TUM Garching | ESO Garching
Muenchener Physik Kolloquium
Talk — Molecular spins for quantum computing
Eugenio Coronado (Univ. de Valencia)
15:30, MPA Large Seminar Room E.0.11 (MPA, Garching) | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — The Likelihood for Large-Scale Structure
Giovanni Cabass (MPA)
12:00, MPE Seminar Room 1.1.18b | ESO Garching
CAS Seminar
Talk — The Astrochemical Impact of Protostellar Cosmic Rays
Brandt Gaches (University of Cologne)
10:45, Library (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
KES: Knowledge Exchange Series
Talk — Photometry of Galaxies in the Era of the Wide-Field Cameras (part I)
Enrica Iodice (INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte & ESO)

Abstract

Exploring the low surface brightness (LSB) universe is one of the most challenging tasks in the era of the deep imaging and spectroscopic surveys. It is however a crucial ingredient to map the mass assembly of galaxies at all scales and all environments and thus constrain their formation within the Lambda-Cold Dark Matter paradigm. In this framework, clusters of galaxies are expected to grow over time by accreting smaller groups. During the infall process, the material stripped from the galaxy outskirts builds up the stellar halos and the intra-cluster light (ICL). These are extended (> 10 Re), diffuse and very faint (μ_g > 26 mag/arcsec^2) components made of stars stripped from satellite galaxies, also in the form of streams and tidal tails, with multiple stellar population and complex kinematics, which are still growing at the present epoch.

In the past, the main limitation of the above studies is the small field of view and angular resolution of the CCD images.

The advent of wide-field cameras allows to overcome these limits and thus to study the very out and faint regions of galaxies. Therefore, on the observational side, a big effort was made in the recent years to develop deep photometric surveys aimed at studying galaxy structures out to the regions of the stellar halos (e.g. Ferrarese et al. 2012; van Dokkum et al. 2014; Duc et al. 2015; Munoz et al. 2015; Merritt et al. 2016; Trujillo & Fliri 2016; Mihos et al. 2017; Iodice et al. 2019). With the current observing facilities the galaxy outskirts and intra-cluster regions can be effectively probed down to a surface brightness limit of ~ 31 mag/arcsec^2 in the g band for nearby galaxies (≤ 50 Mpc).

In this mini-series of KES lectures I would like to

- review the main progresses made on both observational and theoretical sides on this scientific topic;

- show the main steps to derive from the deep images a set of observables to be directly compared with the theoretical predictions on the mass assembly. This part will include details on observation strategies and tools adopted in deep surveys;

- compare results from the analysis of the deep images with simulations.

23/01/20 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Planet Formation Post-Kepler
Eugene Chiang (UC Berkeley)
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Abstract

The message of the Kepler space mission is this: super-Earths abound in the Universe. These are planets ~1--4 Earth radii and ~1--20 Earth masses, composed of solids and gas in proportions of 100:1 by mass. We describe how super-Earths/sub-Neptunes form within circumstellar disks of gas and dust. From basic astrophysical considerations of gas dynamical friction, gravitational scatterings and mergers, and atmospheric accretion by cooling, we infer a planet formation history that occurs largely in-situ, and late in the life of a protoplanetary disk.  We show how theory explains observed occurrence rate trends with orbital period, including the period ratio distribution that exhibits curious excesses near resonances, and can be expanded to accommodate rarer subpopulations such as sub-Saturns (a.k.a. "super-puffs"). Predictions will be highlighted.

Video

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14:00, TUM Garching, Physik Department, HS 3 | ESO Garching
Theoretical High Energy Physics Seminar
Talk — The Supercooled Universe
Pietro Baratella (TUM)
22/01/20 (Wednesday)
14:00, USM, Scheinerstr. 1, Munich | ESO Garching
USM Colloquium
Talk — The ExoMol project: molecular line lists for the opacity of exoplanets and other hot atmospheres
Jonathan Tennyson (UCL, London)
10:45, Library (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — How Not to Measure the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect
Tony Mroczkowski (ESO)

Abstract

First theorized roughly 50 years ago, I will give a brief introduction to the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect, which probe the warm and hot ionized gas in large scale structures at frequencies ~15-500 GHz.  I will then describe how ALMA and the ACA make extremely sensitive but fundamentally limited measurements of the SZ effect, and talk about ways we can improve this in the near future.

21/01/20 (Tuesday)
12:00, Auditorium Telescopium (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — Quenching star formation in massive galaxies
Allison Man (Dunlap Institute, U. Toronto)

Abstract

A fundamental question in galaxy evolution is how galaxies acquire diverse colours and morphologies. The current paradigm suggests that massive galaxies experienced accelerated growth in the early Universe and eventually quench their star formation. Exactly how galaxies quench is not well-understood. Many mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, yet a definite conclusion remains elusive. I will present an overview of the current state of the art and discuss future perspectives on solving this decade-old puzzle.

10:00, Fornax (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
Star and Planet Formation Seminar
Talk — Tracing mass accretion in the young population of the NGC1333 cluster
Eleonora Fiorellino (ESO/INAF)

Abstract

The evolution of young stellar objects (YSOs) from the Class0/I phase, when they are surrounded by an envelope, to the Class II phase, when the envelope is dissipated, is a key phase to understand in order to determine how planets form.

During this phase one of the most interesting physical phenomena is the accretion of mass from the envelope, through the circumstellar disk, and onto the star.

The accretion process has been well investigated and quantified in the last years for 1-3 Myr old, and even older YSOs. On the contrary, the strength and properties of accretion in the earlier stages (age<1 Myr) is starting to be studied only recently thanks to the new instrumentations, such as VLT/KMOS. 

Here, we present the results of the analysis of the KMOS IR spectra for a sample of YSOs in the young (~1Myr) cluster NGC1333 in the Perseus star-forming region. We compare the accretion rates with those derived in older regions to obtain information about the evolution of the accretion luminosity and the mass accretion rate with the age and evolutionary stage of the YSOs population.

20/01/20 (Monday)
17:15, LMU H030, Schellingstr. 4, Munich | ESO Garching
Muenchener Physik Kolloquium
Talk — Aerosol - climate interactions, the distribution of aerosol impacts, and their implications for the social cost of carbon
Jen Burney (Univ. of California)
15:30, MPA Large Seminar Room E.0.11 (MPA, Garching) | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — Exploring the primordial Universe
Umberto Maio (visitor at MPA)
14:00, MPP, Freimann, Munich | ESO Garching
MPP Kolloquium
Talk — The Standard Model is Just the Beginning
Gustaaf Brooijmans (Columbia Univ.)
17/01/20 (Friday)
15:00, Library (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
Galaxy Cluster Discussion Group
Talk — The young and the wild: What happens to protoclusters forming at z=4?
Klaus Dolag (USM/MPA)
11:00, MPE Old Seminar Room 209 | ESO Garching
HEG Seminar
Talk — ASKAP's ORCs, AGN and SNRs - early results
Miroslav Filipovic (Western Sidney Univ.)
16/01/20 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — An overview of fast radio bursts in the era of plentiful discoveries and localizations
Laura Spitler (Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy)
Download video |

Abstract

Fast radio bursts are flashes of radio waves originating from so-far unidentified sources at cosmological distances. The bursts are luminous, have durations on the order of milliseconds, and occur often throughout the Universe. Some have been observed to repeat, while others have only been observed as "one-off" events. One of the biggest questions of the field is whether this is an astrophysical distinction or an observational bias. In any case over 50 cataclysmic and non-cataclysmic source models have been proposed, suggesting that multiple source populations of FRBs may be possible.

In roughly the first decade after their serendipitous discovery in 2007, progress was hampered by low numbers of detections and the inability to associate an FRB with its host galaxy. This changed dramatically in the last few years, as new telescopes began discovering large numbers of FRBs and achieving the spatial precision needed to associate FRBs to their hosts. In this colloquium I will provide an overview of the status of the field, including recent key discoveries by the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME), the Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP), and Deep Synoptic Array - 10. I will also discuss a few interesting sources in more detail, including FRB 121102, the first repeating FRB and the first FRB to be localized.

Video

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14:00, TUM Garching, Physik Department, HS 3 | ESO Garching
Theoretical High Energy Physics Seminar
Talk — Everything you always wanted to know about the LHCDMWG but were afraid to ask
Uli Haisch (MPP)
11:00, MPE Seminar Room 1.1.18b | ESO Garching
MPE Talk
Talk — The cosmic evolution of star formation and molecular gas from archive mining
Daizhong Liu (MPIA Heidelberg)
15/01/20 (Wednesday)
14:00, USM, Scheinerstr. 1, Munich | ESO Garching
USM Colloquium
Talk — Learning about the physics of galaxy clusters using direct measurements of the intracluster medium velocity structure
Jeremy Sanders (MPE)
10:45, Library (ESO HQ, Garching) | ESO Garching
Informal Discussion
Talk — QUASARS in 3D: the timescales of the first super-massive black holes
Emanuele Paolo Farina (MPA)

Abstract

The early formation of supermassive black holes a billion years after the Big Bang is challenging our understanding of structure formation at Cosmic Dawn. The growth time for black holes is, indeed, relatively short, with an e-folding time scale of only 45 Myr when accreting at the Eddington limit. This implies that a black hole seed needs to maximally accrete for the entire Cosmic time to reach a mass >10^8 Msun by z~6. However, this is not the only timescale in play. In this presentation I will summarize results from our 3D pan-chromatic view of the first quasars (capitalizing on ALMA, XSHOOTER, and MUSE data) and provide some pencil and paper (or better, chalk and blackboard) estimates on the relevant timescales connecting the inter- and circum-galactic medium, the quasar host galaxy, and the accretion of the central black holes in the most massive galaxies at the dawn of the Universe.

14/01/20 (Tuesday)
12:00, Auditorium Telescopium (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — Machine learning for skeptical astronomers
Iary Davidzon (Cosmic Dawn Center (Copenhagen))

Abstract

As machine learning codes are becoming ubiquitous in the literature, some skepticism remains because of the "black box" nature of most of these algorithms, inextricable biases in their training sample, and other limitations. Sharing these concerns, we tested unsupervised "manifold learning" algorithms with a realistic mock galaxy catalog (up to z=4) derived from cosmological hydro-dynamical simulations. I will present the results obtained by analyzing this data with "self-organizing maps", and discuss future, groundbreaking applications in understanding galaxy evolution.

13/01/20 (Monday)
15:30, MPA Large Seminar Room E.0.11 (MPA, Garching) | ESO Garching
MPA Institute Seminar
Talk — Constraining SN Ia explosion models from nebular phase spectroscopy
Andreas Floers (MPA)
10/01/20 (Friday)
10:00, MPE Seminar Room 1.1.18b | ESO Garching
MPE Seminar
Talk — Exploring the accretion process with TDEs and changing-state AGNs
Zhu Liu (NAO/CAS)
09/01/20 (Thursday)
15:15, Auditorium Eridanus (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Munich Joint Astronomy Colloquium
Talk — Particle Physics Beyond the Standard Model from X-ray Studies of AGN
Christopher Reynolds (University of Cambridge)
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Abstract

Discovering new physics beyond the Standard Model is the holy grail of modern particle physics. There has been a recent surge of interest in axions and axion-like particles, in part due to the possibility that they may constitute some fraction of the non-baryonic dark matter (coupled with the failure to detect weakly-interacting massive particles), and also due to the fact that they are generically-predicted by String Theories. In this talk, I shall discuss how astrophysical observations provide a multitude of powerful ways to constrain axion-sector physics. I shall particularly highlight how the transparency (or lack thereof) of the magnetized intracluster medium (ICM) to X-rays from embedded luminous AGN can be a powerful probe of axion-like particles. I will present new data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory for the Perseus cluster which allows us to set constraints on the properties of any low-mass axion-like particles that exceed those possible from the next-generation laboratory and ground-based searches. Our limits are already in moderate tension with predictions from String Theory. I shall end by highlighting the power of the Athena X-ray Observatory for future such studies.

Video

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11:00, MPA Old Lecture Hall 401 | ESO Garching
MPA Talk
Talk — Probing dark matter and the distant Universe with galaxy cluster strong lensing
Gabriel Caminha (Groningen)
07/01/20 (Tuesday)
16:00, MPP, Freimann, Munich | ESO Garching
MPP Kolloquium
Talk — Neutrino cosmology: A match made in the Heavens
Yvonne Wong (University of New South Wales)
12:00, Auditorium Telescopium (ESO HQE, Garching) | ESO Garching
Lunch Talk
Talk — The environmental effect on galaxy evolution at z=2: CO excitation, galaxy interactions, and the sub-M* population
Rosemary Coogan (MPE)

Abstract

Cl J1449+0856 is an excellent case to study the development of environmental trends seen at low redshift - a galaxy cluster at z=2 that already shows evidence of a virialised atmosphere. We have obtained a wide range of observations of cluster members, including multiple transitions of CO and the dust continuum emission. With these data, we study properties such as molecular gas excitation, star-formation efficiency and gas fraction, to reveal how obscured star-formation, ISM content and AGN activity are linked to environment during this crucial phase of mass assembly. Probing beyond the massive population, we finish by comparing low-metallicity ISM scaling relations at z=2 with those calibrated in the local Universe, investigating this so-far poorly probed ISM regime.

11:00, MPE Seminar Room 1.1.18b | ESO Garching
MPE Talk
Talk — Development and Test of a Fringe-Imaging direct-Detection Doppler Wind LiDAR for Aeronautics
Jonas Herbst