Observing Constraints and Classification Rules
General Observing Constraints
Every requested observation has multiple observing constraints. Typical observing constraints are:
- the allowable brightest lunar phase
- the allowable smallest moon-to-object angular separation
- the allowable maximum airmass
- the allowable maximum image size (i.e. FWHM at observed wavelength, 'image quality' )
- the allowable sky transparency
- for CRIRES, NACO and SINFONI, the Strehl ratio on the reference star (as applicable).
- for instruments observing in the mid-IR (CRIRES and VISIR), the allowable maximum Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV)
- the allowable twilight constraint that defines the earliest time in minutes with respect to the end of the astronomical twilight when the execution of the OB can be started (see the note below).
- the allowable absolute time window for the start of the observation (i.e. for time critical events, multi-epoch monitoring)
- the allowable local sidereal time range for the entire observation (e.g. for ADI observation)
- for VLTI instruments, the availability of the desired baseline
The Observing Constraints are specified by the user at Phase 2 for each Observation Block. Since the execution conditions required by each programme are an important ingredient in the process of building up the Long Term Schedule of an observing semester, and thus determines which programmes can or cannot be scheduled, users are not allowed to specify at Phase 2 constraints that are more strict than those specified in the original proposal. Users can however relax the constraints during the submission of their Phase 2 material. The values in the OB constraint sets that are selected (and approved) during Phase 2 preparation (and review) cannot be changed later during the observing period.
Note about the twilight constraint: this observing constraint has been introduced to allow specifying start of observation with respect to the start of the night: e.g. to delay start of observations for faint targets until the sky gets darker, or allow starting observations for very bright targets during the twilight. The original motivation for this constraint is related to sky brightness in near-IR that is affected by OH lines excitation, and is not affected by other constraints (e.g. moon distance/phase). It does not apply to astronomical twilight at the end of the night (i.e. sunrise).
General Classification Rules
Quality Control of OBs executed in Service Mode will be based on the specified constraints in the OB for airmass, atmospheric transparency, image quality/seeing, moon constraints, twilight constraint, as well as Strehl ratio for Adaptive Optics mode observations. If all constraints are fullfilled the OB will get assigned Quality Control grade "A", while the "B" quality control is assigned if some constraint is up to 10% violated. The observations with quality control grades A or B are completed, while those with quality control grade "C" (out of constraints) will be re-scheduled and may be repeated. In exceptional cases an OB may get status completed with quality grade "D", meaning that it is taken out of constraints but will not be repeated.
Note: for most instruments the image quality constraint as defined in the OB is judged against the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of a point source in the resulting image (or spectral image). For the instruments where the image quality cannot be directly measured (AO, VLTI, fibre instrument), it is either not used for classification or is obtained from the wavefront sensor of the active optics of the telescope.
Additional Observing Constraints and Classification Rules for HAWK-I
Do not overspecify the Moon constraints as this reduces the chances of the Observing Block being executed! The Moon does not directly affect infrared observations. For most HAWK-I observations the Moon illumination (FLI) can be entirely relaxed by selecting FLI=1. Only for the shortest wavelength filters (<1.2mic) there is an increased contribution from the sky background, degrading the sensitivity of your observations.
Because HAWK-I is an infrared imager, observations of bright objects may be carried out in twilight. From P91 onwards, there is a new constraint in P2PP3 called twilight constraint. This constraint can be used to define the earliest time with respect to the end of the astronomical twilight when the execution of the OB can be started. While the relation between the time difference from the evening twilight end and sun elevation varies during the year, for Paranal due to its low latitude this difference is small. Therefore the constraint is given in minutes as a difference in time with respect to the end of astronomical twilight (i.e. the time when the solar elevation is -18 degrees). The default value of twilight constraint is 0. A negative number means that it is allowed to start the observation before the end of the astronomical twilight. The twilight constraint can take values between -45 and 0 minutes.