Messenger 183 | 2021

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3-5 (PDF)
Waelkens, C. et al.
ESO Strategy for the 2020s

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5227
ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.183....3W
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Waelkens, C.; Benz, W.; Barcons, X.
AA(Institute of Astronomy, KU Leuven, Belgium) AB(Physics Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland) AC(ESO)

Instrumentation

7-12 (PDF)
Maire, A.-L. et al.
High-precision Astrometric Studies in Direct Imaging with SPHERE

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5228
ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.183....7M
Section:
Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Maire, A.-L.; Chauvin, G.; Vigan, A.; Gratton, R.; Langlois, M.; Girard, J.H.; Kenworthy, M.A.; Pott, J.-U.; Henning, T.; Kervella, P.; Lacour, S.; Rickman, E.L.; Boccaletti, A.; Delorme, P.; Meyer, M.R.; Nowak, M.; Quanz, S.P.; Zurlo, A.
AA(University of Liège, Belgium; Max-Planck-Institute For Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany) AB(Institute for Planetary sciences and Astrophysics, Grenoble, France) AC(Aix Marseille University, CNRS, CNES, LAM, France) AD(INAF–Astronomical Observatory of Padua, Italy) AE(Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, Saint Genis Laval, France) AF(Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA) AG(Leiden Observatory, Leiden, the Netherlands) AH(Max-Planck-Institute For Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany) AI(Max-Planck-Institute For Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany) AJ(Paris Observatory, Meudon, France) AK(Paris Observatory, Meudon, France) AL(Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA) AM(Paris Observatory, Meudon, France) AN(Institute for Planetary sciences and Astrophysics, Grenoble, France) AO(University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA) AP(University of Cambridge, UK) AQ(ETH, Zürich, Switzerland) AR(Diego Portales University, Santiago, Chile)
Abstract:
Orbital monitoring of exoplanetary and stellar systems is fundamental for analysing their architecture, dynamical stability and evolution, and mechanisms of formation. Current high-contrast extreme- adaptive-optics imagers like the Spectro- Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch instrument (SPHERE), the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) and the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics/Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph combination (SCExAO+CHARIS) explore the population of giant exoplanets and brown dwarf and stellar companions beyond typically 10 au, but they cover only a small fraction (< 20%) of the orbit, leading to degeneracies and biases in the orbital parameters. Precise and robust measurements of the position of the companions over time are critical, requiring good knowledge of the instrumental limitations and dedicated observing strategies. The homogeneous dedicated calibration strategy for astrometry implemented for SPHERE has facilitated high-precision studies by its users since it began operating in 2014. As the precision of exoplanet-imaging instruments is now reaching milliarcseconds and is expected to improve with forthcoming facilities, we initiated a community effort, triggered by the SPHERE experience, to share lessons learned for high-precision astrometry in direct imaging. A homogeneous strategy would strongly benefit the Very Large Telescope (VLT) community, in synergy with VLT Interferometer instruments like GRAVITY/GRAVITY+ and future instruments like the Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) and the MCAO-Assisted Visible Imager and Spectrograph (MAVIS), and in preparation for the exploitation of the Extremely Large Telescope’s (ELT’s) first instruments: the Multi-AO Imaging CAmera for Deep Observations (MICADO), the High Angular Resolution Monolithic Optical and Near-infrared Integral field spectrograph (HARMONI), and the Mid-infrared ELT Imager and Spectrograph (METIS).
References:
Bellini, A. et al. 2014, ApJ, 797, 115; Beuzit, J.-L. et al. 2019, A&A, 631, A155; Chauvin, G. et al. 2017, A&A, 605, L9; Cheetham, A. et al. 2019, A&A, 622, A80; Lacour, S. et al. 2014, A&A, 567, A75; Lagrange, A.-M. et al. 2019, A&A, 621, L8; Langlois, M. et al. 2020, A&A, in press, arXiv:2103.03976; Maire, A.-L. et al. 2016, Proc. SPIE, 9908, 990834; Maire, A.-L. et al. 2019, A&A, 624, A118; Nielsen, E. L. et al. 2017, AJ, 154, 218
13-17 (PDF)
Maud, L. et al.
Enhancing ALMA’s Future Observing Capabilities

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5229
ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.183...13M
Section:
Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Maud, L.; Villard, E.; Takahashi, S.; Asaki, Y.; Bastian, T.; Cortes, P.; Crew, G.; Fomalont, E.; Hales, A.; Ishii, S.; Matthews, L.; Messias, H.; Nagai, H.; Sawada, T.; Schieven, G.; Shimojo, M.; Vila-Vilaro, B.; Biggs, A.; Petry, D.; Phillips, N.; Paladino, R.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO; Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile) AC(Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile; National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Santiago, Chile) AD(Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile; National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Santiago, Chile) AE(National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, USA) AF(Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile; National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, USA) AG(MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, USA) AH(Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile; National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, USA) AI(Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile; National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, USA) AJ(Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile; National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Santiago, Chile) AK(MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, USA) AL(Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile) AM(National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, Japan) AN(Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile; National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Santiago, Chile) AO(National Research Council of Canada Herzberg Astronomy & Astrophysics Programs, Victoria, Canada) AP(National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, Japan) AQ(Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile) AR(ESO) AS(ESO) AT(ESO) AU(INAF–Institute of Radioastronomy, Bologna, Italy)
Abstract:
With each observing cycle at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) new features and observing modes are offered. Here we provide some background about how these new capabilities are tested and then made available to ALMA users. These activities help to drive the cutting-edge science conducted with ALMA and to maintain ALMA’s position as the foremost interferometric array operating at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. We focus in particular on opening up high-frequency observing using ALMA’s longest baselines, which offers the highest possible angular resolution.
References:
ALMA Partnership et al. 2015, ApJL, 808, L3; Asaki, Y. et al. 2020a, ApJS, 247, 23; Asaki, Y. et al. 2020b, AJ, 160, 59; Bastian, T. et al. 2018, The Messenger, 171, 25; Escoffier, R. P. et al. 2007, A&A, 462, 801; Hatziminaoglou, E. et al. 2015, The Messenger, 162, 24; Huang, Y. et al. 2016, Proc. SPIE, 9911, 99111V Hull, C. L. H. et al. 2020, PASP, 132, 094501; Maud, L. T. et al. 2020, ApJS, 250, 18; McMullin, J. P. et al. 2007, ASP Conf. Ser., 376, 127; Meyer, J. D. et al. 2015, ASP Conf. Ser., 499, 361; Petry, D. et al. 2020, The Messenger, 181, 16; Takahashi, S. et al. 2021, ALMA Memo, 618; Tilanus, R. et al. 2014, arXiv:1406.4650v2
18-19 (PDF)
Boffin, H.M.J. et al.
FORS-Up: May the FORS Be With Us For Another 15 Years

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5230
ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.183...18B
Section:
Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Boffin, H.M.J.; Derie, F.; Manescau, A.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Baldini, V.; Calderone, G.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Del Valle Izquierdo, D.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Gutierrez Cheetham, P.; Haddad, N.; Hopgood, J.; Kolsmanski, J.; Modigliani, A.; Lilley, P.; Moehler, S.; Nonino, M.; Rupprecht, G.; Silber, A.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO) AD(ESO) AE(INAF–Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, Italy) AF(INAF–Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, Italy) AG(INAF–Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, Italy) AH(INAF–Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, Italy) AI(ESO) AJ(INAF–Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, Italy) AK(ESO) AL(ESO) AM(ESO) AN(ESO) AO(ESO) AP(ESO) AQ(ESO) AR(INAF–Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, Italy) AS(ESO) AT(ESO)
Abstract:
The FORS Upgrade project (FORS-Up) will extend the life of the popular workhorse instrument attached to ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT), FORS2. The project — a collaboration between ESO and INAF–Astronomical Observatory of Trieste — aims to bring to the telescope, in about three years’ time, a refurbished instrument with a new scientific detector, upgraded instrument control software and electronics based on ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) standard technologies, a new calibration unit, and additional filters and grisms.
20-23 (PDF)
Coccato, L. et al.
Colour Transformations for ESO Near-Infrared Imagers

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5231
ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.183...20C
Section:
Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Coccato, L.; Freudling, W.; Retzlaff, J.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO)
Abstract:
ESO operates four near-infrared (NIR) imagers, namely the High Acuity Wide-field K-band Imager (HAWK-I), the VISTA InfraRed CAMera (VIRCAM), the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch instrument (SPHERE), and Son OF ISAAC (SOFI). In addition, data for the two decommissioned instruments the Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) and the Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System/COudé Near-Infrared CAmera combination (NAOS-CONICA, or NACO) are available from the science archive. Because these instruments have different effective bandpasses, the magnitudes measured with them are difficult to compare and doing so can lead to inconsistencies if the colour of an object is not taken into account. In this article, we present colour transformations between the ESO NIR imagers and the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) photometric system in the J, H, and Ks bands. The coefficients can be used to compare and convert magnitudes derived from different ESO and non-ESO instruments.
References:
Carpenter, J. M. 2001, AJ, 121, 2851. Cohen, M., Wheaton, W. A. & Megeath, S. T. 2003, AJ, 126, 1090; González-Fernández, C. et al. 2018, MNRAS, 474, 5459; Janczak, J. et al. 2010, ApJ, 711, 731; Kato, D. et al. 2007, PASJ, 59, 615; McMahon, R. et al. 2013, The Messenger, 154, 35; Neeser, M. et al. 2016, The Messenger, 166, 36; Persson, S. E. et al. 1998, AJ, 116, 2475; Retzlaff, J. et al. 2010, A&A, 511, A50; Tokunaga, A. T., Simons, D. A. & Vacca, W. D. 2002, PASP, 114, 180; van der Bliek, N. S., Manfroid, J. & Bouchet, P. 1996, A&AS, 119, 547

Astronomical Science

25-29 (PDF)
Iodice, E. et al.
The VST Early-type GAlaxy Survey: Exploring the Outskirts and Intra-cluster Regions of Galaxies in the Low-surface- brightness Regime

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5232
ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.183...25I
Section:
Astronomical Science
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Iodice, E.; Spavone, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Schipani, P.; Arnaboldi, M.; Cantiello, M.; D’Ago, G.; De Cicco, D.; Forbes, D.A.; Greggio, L.; Krajnović, D.; La Marca, A.; Napolitano, N.R.; Paolillo, M.; Ragusa, R.; Raj, M.A.; Rampazzo, R.; Rejkuba, M.
AA(INAF–Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Naples, Italy) AB(INAF–Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Naples, Italy) AC(INAF–Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Naples, Italy) AD(INAF–Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Naples, Italy) AE(ESO) AF(INAF–Astronomical Abruzzo Observatory, Teramo, Italy) AG(Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile) AH(Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile) AI(Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Australia) AJ(INAF−Astronomical Observatory of Padova, Padova, Italy) AK(Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, Germany) AL(INAF–Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Naples, Italy; University of Naples, Italy) AM(School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-sen University Zhuhai Campus, Guangdong, China) AN(University of Naples, Italy) AO(INAF–Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Naples, Italy; University of Naples, Italy) AP(INAF−Astronomical Observatory of Rome, Italy) AQ(INAF–Astronomical Observatory of Padova, Asiago, Italy) AR(ESO)
Abstract:
The VST Early-type GAlaxy Survey (VEGAS) is a deep, multi-band (u, g, r, I) imaging survey, carried out with the 2.6-metre VLT Survey Telescope (VST) at ESO’s Paranal Observatory in Chile. VEGAS combines the wide (1-square- degree) field of view of the VST’s OmegaCAM imager and long integration times, together with a specially designed observing strategy. It has proven to be a gold mine for studies of features at very low surface brightness, down to levels of μg ~ 27–30 magnitudes arcsec–2, over 5–8 magnitudes fainter than the dark sky at Paranal. In this article we highlight the main science results obtained with VEGAS observations of galaxies across different environments, from dense clusters of galaxies to unexplored poor groups and in the field.
References:
Arnaboldi, M. et al. 2020, Galactic Dynamics in the Era of Large Surveys, IAU Symposium, 353, 233; Cantiello, M. et al. 2018, A&A, 611, A93; Cantiello, M. et al. 2020, A&A, 639, A136; Capaccioli, M. et al. 2015, A&A, 581, A10; Duc, P.-A. 2017, Formation and Evolution of Galaxy Outskirts, IAU Symposium, 321, 180; Forbes, D. A. et al. 2020, MNRAS, 494, 5293; Iodice, E. et al. 2016, ApJ, 820, 42; Iodice, E. et al. 2017, ApJ, 839, 21; Iodice, E. et al. 2020a, A&A, 635, A3; Iodice, E. et al. 2020b, A&A, 642, A48; Janssens, S. R. et al. 2019, ApJ, 887, 92; Mihos, J. C. 2019, The Realm of the Low Surface Brightness Universe, arXiv:1909.09456; Peletier, R. P. et al. 2020, arXiv:2008.12633; Prole, D. J. et al. 2019, MNRAS, 484, 4865; Raj, M. A. et al. 2020, A&A, 640, A137; Spavone, M. et al. 2017, A&A, 603, A38; Spavone, M. et al. 2018, ApJ, 864, 149; Spavone, M. et al. 2020, A&A, 639, A14; Spavone, M. et al. 2021, A&A, accepted, arXiv:2103.07478; van Dokkum, P. G. et al. 2015, ApJL, 804, L26; van Dokkum, P. G. et al. 2016, ApJL, 828, L6; Venhola, A. et al. 2018, A&A, 620, A165

Astronomical News

31-36 (PDF)
Burtscher, L. et al.
Report on the ESO Workshop "Ground-based Thermal Infrared Astronomy — Past, Present and Future"

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5233
ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.183...31B
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Burtscher, L.; Ivanov, V.D.; van den Ancker, M.
AA(Leiden Observatory, the Netherlands) AB(ESO) AC(ESO)
Abstract:
This ESO workshop was originally planned as a traditional in-person meeting at ESO in Garching in April 2020. It was rescheduled and transformed into a fully online event in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. With 337 participants from 36 countries the workshop was a resounding success, demonstrating the wide interest of the astronomical community in the science goals and the toolkit of ground-based thermal infrared (IR) astronomy.
References:
Asmus, D., Hönig, S. F. & Gandhi, P. 2016, ApJ, 822, 109; Asmus, D. 2019, MNRAS, 489, 2177; Burtscher, L. et al. 2020, Nature Astronomy, 4, 823; Fletcher, L. N. et al. 2017, Nature Astronomy, 1, 765; Fletcher, L. N. et al. 2018, AJ, 156, 67; Kasper, M. et al. 2019, The Messenger, 178, 5; Lopez-Rodriguez, E. et al. 2020, ApJ, 893, 33; Robberto, M. et al. 2005, AJ, 129, 1534; Roman, M. T. et al. 2020, AJ, 159, 45; Sinclair, J. A. et al. 2020, Icarus, 345, 113748; Wagner, K. et al. 2021, Nature Communications, 12, 922
37-40 (PDF)
Sbordone, L. et al.
Report on the ESO Workshop "20th Anniversary of Science Exploration with UVES"

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5234
ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.183...37S
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Sbordone, L.; Pritchard, J.; Pasquini, L.; Hill, V.; Kaufer, A.; Ledoux, C.; Percheron, I.; Peroux, C.; Primas, F.; Saldias, L.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO) AD(Lagrange Laboratory, Côte d’Azur Observatory, University of Côte d’Azur, France) AE(ESO) AF(ESO) AG(ESO) AH(ESO) AI(ESO) AJ(ESO)
Abstract:
The UltraViolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) was first offered to the ESO community in 2000. A workhorse covering a vast range of topics from Solar System objects to cosmology, it quickly became one of the most productive instruments at Paranal. For the 20th anniversary of UVES’s entering into service, over 100 astronomers from across the world convened in a virtual workshop to celebrate the instrument’s achievements and to reframe its role, in a profoundly changed instrumental and scientific landscape, as it enters its 3rd decade of operation at the Very Large Telescope (VLT).
References:
D’Odorico, S. 2000, The Messenger, 99, 2
41-42 (PDF)
Solarz, A.
Fellows at ESO

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5235
ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.183...41E
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Solarz, A.
AA(ESO)
42-43 (PDF)
Kalliopi Koutoulaki, M.
External Fellows at ESO

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5236
ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.183...42E
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Kalliopi Koutoulaki, M.
AA(ESO)
43-43 (PDF)
ESO
Personnel Movements

ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.183...43E
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)