Messenger 184 | 2021

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3-7 (PDF)
Williams, A. et al.
Analysing the Impact of Satellite Constellations and ESO’s Role in Supporting the Astronomy Community

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5237
ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.184....3W
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Williams, A.; Hainaut, O.; Otarola, A.; Tan, G.H.; Rotola, G.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO) AD(ESO) AE(ESO)
Abstract:
In the coming decade, up to 100 000 satellites in large constellations could be launched into low Earth orbit. The satellites will introduce a variety of negative impacts on astronomy observatories and science, which vary from negligible to very disruptive depending on the type of instrument, the position of the science target, and the nature of the constellation. Since the launch of the first batch of SpaceX’s Starlink constellation in 2019, the astronomy community has made substantial efforts to analyse the problem and to engage with satellite operators and government agencies. This article presents a short summary of the simulations of impacts on ESO’s optical and infrared facilities and ALMA, as well as the conducted observational campaigns to assess the brightness of satellites. It also discusses several activities to identify policy solutions at the international and national level.
References:
Bortle, J. E. 2001, Sky & Telescope, February 2001 Boley, A. C. & Byers, M. 2021, Sci Rep, 11, 10642; Char, F. et al. 2016, BAAA, 58, 200; Curzi, G., Modenini, D. & Tortora, P. 2020, Aerospace, 7(9), 133; Dalton, G. B. et al. 2006, Proc. SPIE, 6269, 62690X Emerson, J., McPherson, A. & Sutherland, W. 2006, The Messenger, 126, 41; Hainaut, O. R. & Williams, A. P. 2020, A&A, 636, A121; IAU 2020, Dark and Quiet Skies for Science and Society — Report and Recommendations Tregloan-Reed, J. et al. 2020, A&A, 637, L1; Tregloan-Reed, J. et al. 2021, A&A, 647, A54; Walker, C. et al. 2020, Bull. AAS, 52(2) Wood, L. 2003, Satellite constellation networks, Internetworking and Computing over Satellite Networks, (Boston: Springer), 13
8-14 (PDF)
Mérand, A. et al.
Report on the Scientific Prioritisation Community Poll (2020)

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5238
ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.184....8M
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Mérand, A.; Andreani, P.; Cirasuolo, M.; Comerón, F.; De Gregorio Monsalvo, I.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Emsellem, É.; Ivison, R.; Kemper, F.; Kerschbaum, F.; Leibundgut, B.; Liske, J.; McLure, R.; Mroczkowski, T.; Origlia, L.; Philips, N.; Sana, H.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO) AD(ESO) AE(ESO) AF(Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Switzerland) AG(ESO; CRAL, University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, ENS of Lyon, France) AH(ESO) AI(ESO) AJ(Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Austria) AK(ESO) AL(Hamburg Observatory, Germany) AM(Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, UK) AN(ESO) AO(INAF – Astrophysics and Space Science Observatory of Bologna, Italy) AP(ESO) AQ(Institute of Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Belgium)
Abstract:
ESO regularly updates its science- driven perspective in order to provide the best facilities and services for its community. As part of this exercise, ESO polled its users between January and February 2020. Questions were inspired by the previous poll, conducted in 2015, to probe any evolution of community opinions and profile, with an emphasis on the future of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the VLT Interferometer (VLTI). Of the approximately 17700 registered users targeted, 10% had accounts in both the ESO and European ALMA portals, another 14% were registered in the ALMA portal only, and the remaining 76% were registered in the ESO portal only. Some 3700 email addresses, predominantly associated with the ESO portal, were invalid. From the remaining approximately 14000 user accounts, 1673 complete responses were received, a response rate comparable to that of the 2015 poll. The present poll was split into three parts: 1) profile of respondent; 2) current and future observing facilities; 3) ESO in the coming decade. Here we summarise the results and provide some highlights from the poll.
References:
Mérand, A. & Leibundgut, B. 2019, The Messenger, 177, 67; Primas, F. et al. 2015, The Messenger, 161, 6
16-19 (PDF)
Zwaan, M. et al.
A Guide to ALMA Operations and Interactions with the Community

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5239
ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.184...16Z
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Zwaan, M.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Kemper, F.; Testi, L.; Humpreys, E.; Fukagawa, M.; Remijan, A.; Biggs, A.; Díaz Trigo, M.; Guglielmetti, F.; van Kampen, E.; Maud, L.; Miotello, A.; Petry, D.; Popping, G.; Randall, S.; Stanke, T.; Stoehr, F.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO) AD(ESO) AE(ESO; Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile) AF(National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, Japan) AG(National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, USA) AH(ESO) AI(ESO) AJ(ESO) AK(ESO) AL(ESO) AM(ESO) AN(ESO) AO(ESO) AP(ESO) AQ(ESO) AR(ESO)
Abstract:
A primary goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has always been to be a facility accessible to astronomers, radio-interferometry experts and non-experts alike. As a project, it is strongly committed to listening to its users and to utilising this input in decision making and priority setting. Feedback from the community often highlights the perceived complexity of ALMA’s organisational structure and, by extension, a diffuse uncertainty around how to make users’ voices heard. The aim of this article is to provide insight into the functioning of ALMA as an integrated observatory, with an emphasis on science and science operations. We present information on the ways the observatory communicates with the broader community, with a focus on the mechanisms by which the community can provide feedback to the project.
References:
Cioni, M. et al. 2019, The Messenger, 176, 8; Hatziminaoglou, E. et al. 2015, The Messenger, 162, 24; Maud, L. et al. 2021, The Messenger, 183, 13; Petry, D. et al. 2020, The Messenger, 181, 16; Takahashi, S. et al. 2021, ALMA Memo, 618
20-24 (PDF)
Quertier, B. et al.
Upgrade Strategies for the ALMA Digital System

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5240
ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.184...20Q
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Quertier, B.; Gauffre, S.; Randriamantena, A.; Studniarek, M.; De Breuck, C.; Mroczkowski, T.; Tan, G.H.; Kemper, C.; Phillips, N.
AA(LAB, University of Bordeaux, France) AB(LAB, University of Bordeaux, France) AC(LAB, University of Bordeaux, France) AD(LAB, University of Bordeaux, France) AE(ESO) AF(ESO) AG(ESO) AH(ESO) AI(ESO)
Abstract:
The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) comprises 66 antennas working as a powerful interferometer. High-speed digitisation, signal transmission over several tens of kilometres from the receivers to the correlator, and complex data processing all require state-of-the-art technologies. The ALMA2030 Development Roadmap calls for an increase in the bandwidth by at least a factor of two, implying a major upgrade of the entire signal path. We present here the results of a detailed study looking at how to upgrade the ALMA digital system, including digitisation, data pre-processing, and data transmission to cope with bandwidths more than four times the current ones. At the same time, this system will contribute to increasing the nominal correlation efficiency from 88% to 99%, and prepare ALMA for longer baselines of up to 100 kilometres.
References:
Kemper, C. 2020, The Messenger, 180, 42; Baudry, A. et al. 2006, The Messenger, 125, 37; Baudry, A. et al. 2017, ALMA Memo, 607; Carpenter, J. et al. 2019, The ALMA Development Roadmap, arXiv:1902.02856; Reuter, C. et al. 2020, ApJ, 902, 78; Yagoubov, P. et al. 2020, A&A, 634, A46; Tan, L. & Jiang, J. 2019, Digital Signal Processing, (Cambridge, Massachusets: Academic Press), 13; et seq. Thompson, A. R., Emerson, D. T. & Schwab, F. R. 2007, Radio Science, 42
26-29 (PDF)
Spiniello, C. et al.
The INvestigate Stellar Population In RElics (INSPIRE) Project — Scientific Goals and Survey Design

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5241
ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.184...26S
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Spiniello, C.; Tortora, C.; D’Ago, G.; Napolitano, N.R.; The INSPIRE Team
AA(Sub-Department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, UK; INAF – Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Naples, Italy) AB(INAF – Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Naples, Italy) AC(Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile) AD(School for Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; INAF – Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Naples, Italy)
Abstract:
Relics are the ancient fossils of the early Universe. They are ultra-compact and massive galaxies that formed only a few (1–2) billion years after the Big Bang, in a short and intense burst of star formation, and then evolved passively and undisturbed until the present day, completely missing the accretion phase predicted for the assembly of local giant early-type galaxies. As such, they represent a unique opportunity to put precise constraints on the first phase of structure formation in the Universe. Since the number of relics predicted at each redshift depends heavily on the mechanisms responsible for the accretion and growth of massive galaxies, obtaining number counts at 0 < z < 0.5 is a very powerful way to validate and disentangle different possible physical scenarios driving their formation and size-evolution. INvestigating Stellar Population In RElics (INSPIRE) is an ongoing project based on an approved ESO Large Programme, targeting 52 relic candidates with the X-shooter spectrograph at ESO’s Very Large Telescope with the aim of building the first statistically large catalogue of relics at 0.1 < z < 0.5.
References:
Oser, L. et al. 2010, ApJ, 725, 2312 Roy, N. et al. 2018, MNRAS, 480, 1057; Scognamiglio, D. et al. 2020, ApJ, 893, 4 Spiniello, C. et al. 2021a, A&A, 646, A28; Spiniello, C. et al. 2021b, arXiv:2103.12086 Szomoru, D., Marijn, F. & van Dokkum, P. G. 2012, ApJ, 749, 121; Tortora, C. et al. 2016, MNRAS, 457, 2845 Tortora, C. et al. 2018, MNRAS, 481, 4728; Trujillo, I. et al. 2009, ApJL, 692, L118; van Dokkum, P. G. et al. 2008, ApJL, 677, L5
31-36 (PDF)
Anderson, R.I. et al.
Maintaining Scientific Discourse During a Global Pandemic: ESO’s First e-Conference #H02020

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5242
ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.184...31A
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Anderson, R.I.; Suyu, S.H.; Mérand, A.
AA(ESO; ORIGINS cluster, University Observatory Munich, Germany; Laboratory of Astrophysics, Institute of Physics, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland) AB(Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching, Germany; Technical University of Munich, Garching, Germany; Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan) AC(ESO)
Abstract:
From 22 to 26 June 2020, ESO hosted its first live e-conference, #H02020, from within its Headquarters in Garching, Germany. Every day, between 200 and 320 participants around the globe tuned in to discuss the nature and implications of the discord between precise determinations of the Universe’s expansion rate, H0. Originally planned as an in-person meeting, we moved to the virtual domain to maintain strong scientific discourse despite the COVID-19 pandemic. Here we describe our conference setup, feedback gathered from participants before and after the meeting, and lessons learned from this unexpected exercise. As e-conferences will become increasingly common in the future, we provide our perspective on how they can make scientific exchanges more effective and inclusive, and also climate friendly.
References:
Jahnke, K. et al. 2020, Nature Astronomy, 4, 812 Reshef, O. et al. 2020, Nature Reviews Materials, 5, 253; Verde, L., Treu, T. & Riess, A. G. 2019, Nature Astronomy, 3, 891
37-38 (PDF)
Miles-Páez, P.A., Gentile Fusillo, N.P.
Fellows at ESO

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5243
ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.184...37E
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Miles-Páez, P.A.; Gentile Fusillo, N.P.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO)
39-39 (PDF)
ESO
Personnel Movements

ADS BibCode:
2021Msngr.184...39E
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO