ESO Santiago Science Colloquia and Seminars - Abstracts 1999
January 6, 15:00 hr: Dr. Matilde FERNANDEZ
Abstract: X-ray observations from the ROSAT satellite led to the discovery of a significant fraction of pre-main sequence stars located at large distances from any known star forming cloud. Two models have been proposed to explain the origin of these stars: ejection from their birth places and formation in small clouds (cloudlets). Both models predict different peaks for the distribution of rotational periods: larger than about 4 days by the ejection model and smaller than this value by the cloudlets model. We have monitored the brightness variability of two samples of these newly discovered stars located in Chamaleon and Lupus in order to check, using the distribution of rotational periods, which model matches best the observations.
January 13, 15:00 hr: Dr. Marc AZZOPARDI
Abstract: Carbon (C) stars are relatively cool and intrinsically bright objects, several Gyr old, lying on the asymptotic giant branch. They may be identified in the near-infrared by their CN-band blends, but also by their pronounced Swan C2 bands in the blue-green spectral domain. A number of spectroscopic and photometric surveys for C stars have been carried out in Local Group galaxies and even other nearby galaxies beyond those systems, as far away as NGC 2403. However, the most extensive searches for C stars have been done in the Magellanic Clouds and the dwarf spheroidal systems in the Galactic halo, mainly due to their proximity. Consequently, low-luminosity C stars, as faint as Mbol = -1.2, have been found so far in the Small Magellanic Cloud and in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal, two slightly metal-poor galaxies.
Topics covered will include: description of the C star natural groups, survey techniques, present census of the C star populations in nearby galaxies and the unrivalled interest of C stars for the study of the morphology, chemical evolution and kinematics of their parent system.
(This abstract covers both talks, January 13th and 27th)
January 19, 12:00 hr: Dr. James BREWER
Abstract: A review of the C stars' zoo and what they teach us about stellar evolution
January 20, 15:00 hr: Drs Hermann BOEHNHARDT & Patrick FRANCOIS
Abstract: The performances of two new instruments at La Silla will be presented: on the ESO 1.5m, FEROS a high resolution spectrgraph, and on the 2.2m, WFI a wide field imager.
February 2, 15:00 hr: Dr. John LANDSTREET
Abstract: High signal-to-noise, high resolution spectra of several A and late B stars have been modelled in detail to establish the connection between the microturbulence derived from abundance analysis and other evidence of atmospheric velocity fields. In the late B stars, no indication of convection is found, but the A stars show clear evidence of strong velocity fields in the line profiles, in agreement with the large deduced microturbulent velocities.
February 11, 15:00 hr: Dr. Bruno LEIBUNDGUT
Abstract: A new component of the Universe which leads to an accelerated cosmic expansion is found from the measurements of distances to high-redshift type Ia supernovae. We describe the method and the results obtained from the observations of distant supernovae. The dependence on the understanding of the local type Ia supernovae is stressed. The lack of a good understanding of the stellar evolution leading to the explosion of the white dwarf, the exact explosion physics and the current difficulties in calculating the emission from the ejecta limit the theoretical support. Despite the current ignorance of some of the basic physics of the explosions, the cosmological result is robust. The empirical relations seem to hold for the distant supernovae the same way as for the local ones and the spectral appearance is identical. The distances to the high-redshift supernovae are larger than expected in a freely coasting, i.e. empty, Universe. A positive cosmological constant is inferred from these measurements.
February 17, 15:00 hr: Dr. Juan ALCALA
Abstract: A review of the ROSAT all-sky survey (RASS) observations in star forming regions (SFR's) and the follow-up observations to identify the optical counterparts of the X-ray sources is presented. These observations have revealed hundreds of low-mass pre-main sequence stars found, not only in the known regions of recent star formation, but also distributed over a much larger volume. Practically, all these objects are weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTS). The most recent developments and results on the optical high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the identified WTTS are discussed: spatial distribution, lithium abundance, radial velocity distribution and PMS spectroscopic binaries. Implications on low-mass star formation on a large scale and its relation with the Gould Belt are discussed.
March 17, 15:00 hr: Dr. Artie HATZES
Abstract: The seminar will discuss the use of precise radial velocity measurements to probe oscillations in the upper atmosphere of K giants and to better understand their origin.
March 24, 15:00 hr: Dr. Daniel KUNTH
Abstract: Recent HST observations of emission line galaxies in the UV band will be reviewed. Their intrinsic properties will be used to discuss prospect of finding distant galaxies through Lyman alpha emission.
March 26, 15:00 hr: Dr. Thaisa STORCHI BERGMANN
Abstract:Using high S/N long-slit spectroscopy of a sample of 39 active and 3 normal galaxies, we have applied a novel approach to investigate their nuclear stellar population: we study the variation of the equivalent widths of absorption lines and continuum slopes as a function of distance from the nucleus, as a mean to extrapolate these spectral characteristics to the nuclei (which are contaminated by emission lines). Our main results are: (1) the stellar populations in active galactic nuclei are varied, and in most cases cannot be adequately represented by an elliptical galaxy template, as done in previous works; (2) when compared with normal spiral galaxies of the same Hubble type, the central kpc of Seyfert 2 galaxies seems to have similar contribution from young stars (<10 Myrs), suggesting that the presence of young stars is not immediately linked to the nuclear activity; (3) nevertheless, most Seyfert 2's contain substantially larger proportions of 100 Myr stars than either elliptical galaxies or normal spirals of the same Hubble type suggesting an evolutionary link through a 100 Myr timescale.
April 7, 15:00 hr: Dr. Danielle ALLOIN
Abstract Using the power of differential gravitational effects, it is possible to detect and probe the structure and size of the molecular torus in distant AGN/quasars. A pre-requisite for applying this method is the precise knowledge of the lensing system in action. The Clover-leaf, a quadruply imaged quasar at z=2.56, will be examined in this context. Its lensing system will be re-discussed in the light of HST images (from UV to IR). The combination of the HST and IRAM/interferometer high resolution images will then allow to derive the structure and size of the molecular source in the quasar.
April 14, 15:00 hr: Dr. Carme GALLART
Abstract The nearest galaxies are the only ones for which we can obtain the complete star formation history (SFH), i.e. the SFR as a function of time, extended to their earliest episodes of star formation. The main tool for this kind of study is the deep color-magnitude diagram of the galaxy, ideally reaching the oldest main-sequence turnoffs. Using the example of my recent work on the Local Group dwarf spheroidal Leo I, I will discuss our method to obtain the SFH from the color-magnitude diagram. It is based on the comparison of observed and synthetic CMDs computed assuming different evolutionary scenarios. I will present the results on the SFH of Leo I obtained using this method and I will discuss its application to the rest of dwarf spheroidal galaxies satellites of the Milky Way, and to the Magellanic Clouds.
April 16, 15:00 hr: Dr. Michael TAGGER
Abstract I will briefly review a series of work where we have shown the importance of non-linear coupling in the dynamics of spiral and warp waves in galactic disks. This started in 1986 when simulations by Sellwood showed that, when the disk has a realistically peaked rotation curve at the center, spirals and bars appeared which did not follow the usual expectations from linear theory. We showed that non-linear coupling between a bar at the center, and a lower frequency spiral farther out, could explain these simulations. This allows the disk to transfer its angular momentum outward much more efficiently than a single wave could. It might also explain the `'bar within bar'' phenomenon seen at the center of many barred spirals.
April 21, 15:00 hr: Dr. Florian KERBER
Abstract Sakurai's object is a star undergoing a final helium flash. While about 10 % of all low mass stars will undergo such a phase it is an exceedingly rare observational event due to its brief duration. Only two possible examples (V605 Aql and FG Sge) are known in historical times. Sakurai's object has shown an extremely rapid evolution characterized by dramatic changes in its spectrum and chemical composition of the photosphere. Strong dust formation has resulted in a strong IR excess as well as R CrB-like dimmings in the optical. Most recently we have been able to derive the stellar parameters of Sakurai's object *before* the final flash by analyzing the old planetary nebula surrounding it. Continued monitoring of the evolution of Sakurai's object will undoubtedly lead to further insight into this important phase of stellar evolution.
May 4, 15:00 hr: Dr. Gian-Paolo TOZZI
Abstract Cometary X-ray emission has been discovered for the first time in comet HYAKUTAKE and its flux was 40 times larger than predicted! I shall review all possible mechanisms for X-ray emission from comets.
May 13, 15:00 hr: Dr. Philippe DUROUCHOUX
Abstract SS433 has been observed for more than two decades and found to be agalactic source emitting relativistic jets. Later, it has been shown that it is not a unique object in our Galaxy, and that in the Galactic center region, a micro quasar was discovered. More recently, three of these new microquasars were found to be "superluminal". So far, nine galactic compact objects have been identified to be radio-jet sources and monitored in a wide range of wavelengths, leading to a better understanding of the physics of the black holes. I will present a summary of the situation concerning these jet sources and discuss the latest results.
May 14, 15:00 hr: Dr. Patrick Alan WOUDT
Abstract A large part of the Great Attractor overdensity is hidden from our view by the Milky Way. Our deep optical galaxy search behind the southern Milky Way has led to the recognition that ACO 3627 is a rich and massive cluster of galaxies - comparible in size and mass to the well-known Coma cluster - at the heart of the Great Attractor. In this talk, I will focus on the dynamical state of this cluster, as well as determining the galactic foreground extinction in the direction towards the Norma cluster. Finally, a redshift-independent distance to this cluster is derived. This has shown that the Norma cluster is at rest with respect to the Cosmic Microwave Background restframe, and hence the Norma cluster is the most likely candidate for being the Great Attractor's previously unseen core.
May 19, 15:00 hr: Dr. Jorge MELNICK
Abstract The remarkable focusing feature of world models with cosmological constant allow to remove the Omega-Lambda degeneracy by measuring distances alone, provided one can reach redshifts of 2-3. HII Galaxies, low-mass galaxies with strong emission lines, are shown to provide a powerful new technique to measure distances out to those redshifts.
June 4, 15:00 hr: Dr. Zlatan TSVETANOV
Abstract The Advanced Camera for Surveys is manifested for installation in the HST in July, 2001. I will describe the ACS in detail, describe the present status of the instrument and discuss the significant improvements that ACS will bring to the HST.
June 9, 15:00 hr: Dr. Constantino SIGISMONDI
Abstract The free streaming of particles is responsible for the decay of initial density perturbations smaller than the maximum value of the Jeans length corresponding to a given mass of dark matter particles which are driving the large scale structure formation. The Jeans gravitational instability process, with its length scales, and the physical connection with free streaming, will be introduced. Consequences on the kinematics and dynamics of gravitating collision-less dark matter systems, adopting Fermi-Dirac quantum statistics with respect to the Maxwell-Boltzmann classic one, will be reviewed. A lower value for free streaming scale with respect to the classical one is recovered. The cosmological implications are outlined.
June 16, 15:00 hr: Dr. Guillermo CHONG Diaz
Abstract The Atacama Desert is one of the two contrasting extremes of Chile. Neruda said: ``Chile boiled at its head (its desert) and trembled at its feet (Southern Pole)''. This desert is very unique in the world, thus people who inhabit it and its history are consequently different.
This colloquium provides an understanding of the physical and the living desert within the Chilean framework; including aspects such as its economy, people, history and specially that which may call the attention of a foreigner or tourist. Foreigners that live for many years in Northern Chile generally merely grasp a glimpse of the desert and learn only what touristic circuits provide without fully perceiving its undeniable significance and characteristics. The speaker believes knowing the desert is a worthwhile experience. Slides of landscapes, people, historical images, flora and fauna will be shown in which questions, comments and discussion are welcome.
June 24, 12:00 hr: Dr. Knut OLSEN
Abstract I will present V-I,V color-magnitude diagrams produced from HST WFPC2 images containing six of the LMC's red globular clusters. Separate cluster and field star diagrams are easily produced from the same dataset. The cluster CMDs are used to establish the ages of the oldest LMC clusters relative to the Milky Way halo, while the field star CMDs permit the extraction of the entire star formation history of the LMC. I will argue that the LMC formed at the same time as the Milky Way and that the LMC Bar may be older than has been supposed.
June 24, 16:30 hr: Dr. Ferdinando PATAT
Abstract The discovery of SN 1998bw very close in space and time with a Gamma Ray Burst opened a new frontier in both astrophysical fields, indicating that at least one type of GRB is connected to some [peculiar] supernova, as already suggested in the '70s and confirmed by other similar events. During the talk I will present the results of the extensive observing campaign carried out at La Silla and discuss the implications on GRBs, SNe and chemical evolution scenarios.
June 28, 15:00 hr: Dr. Richard BARVAINIS
Abstract Because infrared technology has lagged behind other wavebands, the study of dust in AGNs is a relatively recent phenomenon. Today, however, the role of dust in providing substantial bolometric luminosity and optical obscuration has become clear as new instruments, such as the submillimeter camera SCUBA, are uncovering new classes of AGNs and galaxies and deepening our understanding of known classes.� Concurrent with the study of dust has been the discovery of large amounts of molecular gas in AGNs and infrared galaxies.� This talk will present an account of the increasing importance of dust and molecules in the high-redshift universe, including the connections between quasars and luminous infrared galaxies, and recent results on the submillimeter populations that likely make up the bulk of the infrared background radiation and may account for much of the star formation history of the universe.
July 2, 12:00 hr: Dr. Doug CURRIE
Abstract Eta Carinae is a very massive and highly evolved member of the Carinae starburst region which has had a luminosity (continuing over the past centuries) of 3,000,000 times the Solar luminosity, with an absolute magnitude of -14. In 1842, an eruption ejected over one solar mass of material. Most of this is in the homunculus. The use of astrometric and spectroscopic data to determine the properties of the eruption and the 3D shape of the dust cloud will be presented. In addition, small clumps were ejected at velocities over 1% of the speed of light. These Malin Bullets, that we have recently discovered and the following material, the Malin Spikes will be considered from the astrometric and spectroscope data. Finally, Fabry-Perot observations at the Brackett gamma line on ADONIS confirm the Double-Flask model of the 3D structure of the homuculus and indicate the opacity of the homunculus walls, the total mass and the grain structure of the dust. To this end, I will report on our observations, measurements, and analysis of the three-dimensional motion of this ejecta, its chemical composition, and its density. This discussion will separately address the homunculus, the North "jet", the outer condensations, and the Malin Spikes and Bullets (the latter moving at 1% of the speed of light). This analysis is based upon our observations on the Hubble Space Telescope(using WFPC and FOS), the 3.6 meter ESO telescope at La Silla (using ADONIS Adaptive Optics) and the 8.2 meter telescope at Paranal (using FORS1).
I will also outline the ESO Photometry and Astrometry Program, to provide validated analysis algorithms to AO observers, under which a portion of these results were obtained.
July 7, 16:30 hr: Dr. Francesco FERRARO
Abstract HST-WFPC2 observations in Ultraviolet and visual filters have been used to probe the stellar population in the cores of a sample of intermediate-high density Galactic Globular Clusters. In particular the Blue Stragglers population and the Horizontal Branch morphology in three GGCs (namely M3 , M80 and M13) will be discussed.
July 9, 12:00 hr: Dr. Lisa GERMANY
Abstract The Mount Stromlo Abell Cluster Supernova Search provides the first well defined sample of moderately distant SNe. It has uncovered 48 SNe in the past 3 years which we will use to a) measure SN rates and the luminosity function of SNe, b) better understand SNIa as distance indicators, and c) measure the motion of the Local Group relative to the CMB.
July 15, 16:30 hr: Dr. Jim HIGDON
Abstract Ring galaxies like the Cartwheel provide unique environments for the study of starburst triggering, the regulation of massive star formation (MSF) on large scales, and the effects of concentrated OB populations on the neutral ISM. I will examine the neutral-ISM/MSF connection in a sample of seven ring galaxies using H-alpha and HI aperture synthesis images. Some of the questions to be addressed include: "What factors appear most influential in triggering starburst activity?" and "Why is MSF quenched in the encircled disks?"
July 16, 16:30 hr: Dr. Fernando COMERON
Abstract The supersonic motion of massive stars with respect to the interstellar medium adds interesting new aspects to the already important dynamical effects of the interaction between both. After reviewing the basic structures formed during such interactions, several observational examples will be discussed involving a variety of scenarios in which supersonic motions appear, including results from gas dynamics numerical simulations developed to understand them.
July 21, 16:30 hr: Dr. Sylvain CHATY
Abstract I will present a study of the microquasars, high-energy binary sources located in our Galaxy, morphologically analogous to quasars, but on length and mass scales considerably smaller.�� The first part will concern one of the best representatives of the family of the� microquasars: GRS 1915+105, discovered by the� WATCH/GRANAT telescope, and exhibiting apparently superluminal motions.� After having established the distance, nature and environment� of this object, we performed simultaneous multi-wavelength observations to better constrain and unravel the link between matter accretion and ejection phenomena occuring around the compact object. These observations, establishing the microquasar model, show that the morphological analogies existing between quasars and microquasars are created by dynamics and physics.� In a second part, I will report a study on some high-energy sources, for which we have identified and/or studied the infrared and radio counterparts. This study shows that the compact objects, black holes or neutron stars, in low mass binary systems, undergo the largest variations in the infrared.
July 23, 12:00 hr: Catherine DELAHODDE & Audrey DELSANTI
Abstract The population of TNOs will be described and discussed in relation with the formation of proto-planetary discs. Indeed, the observation of TNOs carries important clues on the early ages of the Solar System. Then, their physical properties, such as size, shape, colors, kinematics will be reviewed.
August 5, 12:00 hr: Dr. Jean SURDEJ
Abstract The working principle of liquid mirror telescopes (LMTs) will first be reminded as well as their advantages and disadvantages over classical telescopes. For several obvious reasons (access to the south galactic pole, galactic center, good image quality, ...), a best site location for such an ILMT is somewhere in the Atacama desert. At latitudes near -22 - -29 degree, a deep (B = 24 mag.) ILMT survey would approximately cover 90 square degrees at high galactic latitude, specially useful for gravitational lensing studies, for the identification of various classes of interesting extragalactic objects (cf. clusters, supernovae, etc. at high redshift) and subsequent follow-up observations with the VLT. Such a survey would in addition provide unique data for studies of the galactic structure and stellar populations, including the detection of microlensed galactic objects, accurate measurements of stellar proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes useful for the detection of faint red, white and brown dwarfs, halo stars, etc. A very detailed description of the ILMT, its contruction, operation and the involved international collaboration will be presented.
August 6, 16:30 hr: Dr. Henri M.J. BOFFIN and Dr. Danny STEEGHS Abstract Using Doppler tomography, spiral structures have been discovered in some dwarf novae in outburst. Such structures, which were predicted by theory for more than 10 years, are thought to arise from the tidal force of the companion. We will present some simulations of these spiral shocks, detail the Doppler tomography technique and make a comparison between theory and observations.
September 9, 12:00 hr: Dr. Dieter E. A. NUERNBERGER
Abstract NGC 3603 is one of the most luminous, optically visible H II regions in the Galaxy and frequently compared to the 30 Dor giant H II region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. It is powered by a cluster of OB stars which shows the highest density of high mass stars known in the Galaxy. Unlike nearby regions of high mass star formation such as the well known Orion Nebula, the combined effort of the dense cluster of hot stars has an even more severe impact on the surrounding gas and dust, on the (sequential) process of star formation as well as on the formation and destruction of circumstellar shells and disks. Therefore NGC 3603 plays a key role in the understanding of both galactic and extragalactic starburst regions. In this talk I will present and review recent observational results covering the spectrum from X rays to cm wavelengths. In particular I will discuss the evidence for an ongoing process of star formation triggered by the NGC 3603 OB cluster in the adjacent giant molecular cloud.
September 13, 15:00 hr: Dr. Doug GEISLER
Abstract The last few years have seen the emergence of an entirely new field in globular cluster research - the recognition that elliptical galaxies contain more than a single population of globular clusters. This makes globular clusters even more valuable as tools to study how elliptical galaxies formed. We will present a brief overview of this new field with emphasis on some of our most recent results.
September 29, 16:30 hr: Dr. Felix MIRABEL
Abstract The various phenomenologies observed in mergers will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be given to the results obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO).
October 11, 16:30 hr: Dr. Pierre DROSSART
Abstract Since its identification on Jupiter and the other giant planets (Wildt, 1932), from spectra recorded in the first part of this century, methane has proved to be a fundamental compound to analyze their atmospheres. With an abundance of the order of 2 per thousand, methane is the most active infrared radiator in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Its infrared radiation largely controls the stratospheric thermal profile. Thus, enhanced emissions are associated with upper atmospheric heating, like in the auroral regions, or during the collision of the fragments of comet Shoemaker Levy 9 with Jupiter. Methane can also be used as a tracer of the upper clouds variations, as a thermometer for retrieving the thermal profile, and, more recently, as an indicator of the turbulence in the upper stratosphere, from the detection of fluorescence in methane bands at 3 micrometer with ISO. Recent improvements in laboratory measurements of CH4 infrared bands continue to give to methane a key role in the understanding of the atmospheric structure of Jupiter and of the other giant planets.
October 27, 16:00 hr:Dr. Gian Paolo TOZZI
Abstract During my talk I will review the nature and origin of comets with the implication of constrains we can put on the formation of the Solar System from their observations. In particular I'll discus the new results obtained with the passage of the two last bright comets: Hyakutake and Hale-Bopp.
November 4, 16:30 hr: Dr. Marguerite PIERRE
Abstract As the largest gravitationally bound entities in the universe, clusters of galaxies are fundamental objects for constraining cosmology. While the concept of "clustering" primarily refers to galaxies, the fact is that galaxies can be neglected - at least in terms of mass - when considering the continuous competition between accretion and relaxation processes of dark matter and gas, which control the dynamical life of galaxy clusters. Gravity is certainly the driving force in cluster formation and evolution, but is not sufficient to explain in detail the properties of the Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM) brought to light by the most recent X-ray data. Non-thermal phenomena revealed by EUV and radio observations, micro-physics and feedback from galaxies play also a key role. From numerical simulations constrained by observations of the ICM at low z, we may extrapolate back in time its properties when density contrasts in the universe were much less pronounced. We shall spend some time describing in simple terms the high-technology of X-ray observatories, how data are analysed and the relevant physics extracted, as it is of general interest for astronomers. Finally, we shall present detailed prospects for observations with the VLT and the forthcoming new generation of X-ray satellites.
November 11, 16:30 hr: Dr. Chris LIDMAN
Abstract Since the discovery of the first gravitational lens 20 years ago the field of gravitational lensing has expanded enormously. I will give a general overview of the field, paying attention to 2 applications: (a) measuring the Hubble constant and (b) measuring the size of the continuum emitting region in QSOs.
November 19, 16:30 hr: Dr. Renee PRANGE
Abstract After a comparative presentation of the general characteristics of planetary magnetospheres in our solar system, I will focus on Jupiter. I will discuss the issue, still open, of the balance of external (solar wind interaction) versus internal (planetary rotation) processes in the dynamics of the magnetosphere, the role of the electrodynamical coupling between the magnetosphere and the planetary ionosphere, and the sources and sinks of magnetospheric plasma. I will finally highlight the importance of remote monitoring of Io and of the Jovian aurorae, including observations taken at La Silla with ADONIS, in our understanding of magnetospheric processes.
November 26, 16:30 hr: Dr. Jean-Pierre VERAN
Abstract 1. What is adaptive optics and why we need it: brief history
2. Wave-front sensing and wave-front correcting techniques
3. Real-time control of an AO system
4. Comparison Shack-Hartmann/Curvature
5. Performances of current AO systems
6. Limitations of AO: sky coverage, field of view
November 29, 16:30 hr: Dr. Joe HAHN
Abstract Surveys of the Kuiper Belt have yielded striking results; Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) reside in rather eccentric and inclined orbits, with many KBOs orbiting at resonances with Neptune. These peculiar KBO orbits suggest that, soon after Neptune formed, its orbit had migrated radially outwards by about 8 AU as it scattered and depleted the natal planetesimal disk. N-body simulations of this phenomena will be presented, and the pros and cons of the planet-migration hypothesis will be described.
November 30, 12:00 hr: Dr. Robert FOSBURY
Abstract A review will be presented of the current advancement of the NGST project, with particular emphasis on what is happening in Europe. The process through which instruments are selected will be discussed.
December 1, 16:30 hr: Dr. Joel VERNET
Abstract There is considerable evidence that powerful radio quasars and radio galaxies are orientation-dependent manifestations of the same parent population: massive spheroids containing correspondingly massive black holes. Following the recognition of this unification, research has shifted to the task of elucidating the structure and composition of the active nuclei and their host galaxies to understand the formation and evolution of what we expect to become the most massive of galaxies. In contrast to the quasars, where the nucleus can outshine the galaxy at optical/near infrared wavelengths by a large factor, the radio galaxies contain a 'built-in coronograph' which obscures our direct view to the nucleus. These objects present our best opportunity to study the host galaxy in detail. Of particular interest are those sources with redshifts greater than about 2 which represent an epoch when nuclear activity was much more common that it is now and when we believe these objects were in the process of assembly. In combination with high resolution imaging from space (HST), optical spectropolarimetry with Keck II allows us to clearly separate the scattered nuclear radiation from the stellar and gaseous emission from the host galaxy. The rest-frame ultraviolet emission line spectra suggest that rapid chemical evolution is occurring at this epoch. Near infrared spectroscopy with the VLT is giving us access to both the lines and continuum in the rest-frame optical spectrum, allowing investigations of the evolved stellar population and extending the composition analysis to the familiar forbidden-line spectrum.
December 3, 16:30 hr: Dr. Jean-Pierre VERAN
Abstract 1. Cosmetic reduction
2. Need for deconvolution
3. PSF estimation, photometry
4. Classical deconvolution techniques
5. Blind/myopic deconvolution techniques
6. Object specific deconvolution techniques
December 10, 17:00 hr: Dr. Junichi WATANABE
Abstract The SUBARU is a superlative 8.3 meter optical-infrared telescope built on the Mauna Kea, Hawaii, by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). It has received first-light early in 1999 and will be ready for routine research starting in the year 2000. There are four foci, including prime focus, and seven main instruments (Suprime-Cam, OHS+CISCO, CIAO+AO, IRCS+AO, COMICS, FOCAS & HDS) currently being built. I will give an overview of the SUBARU telescope together with its short history, and present status.
December 14, 16:00 hr: Dr. Jean-Pierre VERAN
Abstract 1. AO on larger telescopes
2. Laser guide star: principles, state of the art, limitations
3. Altitude conjugation: case of Altair, Gemini North AO systems
4. Wide field AO correction: multi-conjugated AO for Gemini South
5. Adaptive secondary mirrors
6. AO coupled with other acquisition modes: spectro, corono
7. Non astronomical AO: specific case of ophtalmology
December 16, 16:30 hr: Dr. Frederic COURBIN
Abstract A new image deconvolution algorithm is presented. Designed to improve the spatial resolution of images down to critical sampling, it also preserves the photometric/astrometric properties of the original data. It has recently been extended to the spatial deconvolution of spectra and can be used to extract the spectra of faint extended objects hidden by much brighter point sources, e.g., faint galaxies lensing quasars and quasars host galaxies. Applications to simulated and real data are presented.
December 20, 16:30 hr: Dr. Jean-Pierre VERAN
Abstract 1. Solar system
2. Multiple star systems, detection of planets/faint companions
3. Crowded stellar fields (Galactic Center, globular clusters)
4. Young stars and circumstellar disks
5. Extragalactic objects