Messenger No. 134 ( 1980)

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Conference Supplement

2-2 (PDF)
F. Primas, A. Weiss
Special Report on the MPA/ESO/MPE/USM 2008 Joint Astronomy Conference Chemical Evolution of Dwarf Galaxies and Stellar Clusters

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134S...2P
Section:
Conference Supplement
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Primas, F.; Weiss, A.
AA(ESO) AB(Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Garching, Germany)

The Organisation

2-4 (PDF)
M. Bode, G. Monnet
The ASTRONET Infrastructure Roadmap: A Twenty Year Strategy for European Astronomy

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...2B
Section:
The Organisation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Bode, M.; Monnet, G.
AA(Liverpool John Moores University, UK; on behalf of the ASTRONET Roadmap Working Group) AB(ESO; on behalf of the ASTRONET Roadmap Working Group)
Abstract:
The process followed by ASTRONET to build a long-term strategy for European astronomy is presented. The main conclusions and priorities given in the recently unveiled report on the Infrastructure Roadmap for the next 20 years, following the establishment of a Science Vision last year, are summarised. These reports together hopefully represent a blueprint for a bright future for European astronomy.

Conference Supplement

3-8 (PDF)
M. Mateo
The Complex Evolution of Simple Systems

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134S...3M
Section:
Conference Supplement
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Mateo, M.
AA(University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA)
Abstract:
The simplicity and extreme ages of globular clusters and dwarf galaxies imply that these systems may be useful windows to the earliest era of galaxy formation. Recent discoveries of local dwarfs have, in some ways, begun to blur the distinctions between the two types of systems. However, it remains clear that the two types of systems arose from fundamentally different conditions in the early Universe. Globular clusters result from ‘intense’ (what is often referred to as ‘efficient’) star formation processes, possibly related to major merging, while dwarf galaxies represent regions of much more ‘se-date’ (low efficiency) star formation, possibly independent of significant contributions from merging. I review spatial, kinematic and chemical results that support this interpretation.
References:
Dekel, A. & Silk, J. 1986, ApJ, 303, 39; Eggen, O. J., Lynden-Bell, D. & Sandage, A. R. 1962, ApJ, 136, 748; Grebel, E. K., Gallagher, J. S. & Harbeck, D. 2006, in Chemical Abundances and Mixing in Stars in the Milky Way and its Satellites, ESO Astrophysics Symposia Helmi, A. et al. 2006, ApJ, 651, L121; Kallivayalil, N. et al. 2006, ApJ, 638, 772; King, I. R. 1966, AJ, 71, 64; Kirby, E. N. et al. 2008, ApJ, 685, L43; Kormendy, J. 1985, ApJ, 295, 73; Mackey, A. D. et al. 2006, ApJ, 653, L105; Martin, N. F. et al. 2008, ApJ, 684, 1075; Mateo, M. L. 1998, ARAA, 36, 435; Mayer, L. et al. 2006, MNRAS, 369, 1021; Piatek, S., Pryor, C. & Olszewski, E. W. 2008, AJ, 135, 1024; Pritzl, B. J., Venn, K. A. & Irwin, M. 2005, AJ, 130, 2140; Searle, L. & Zinn, R. 1978, ApJ, 225, 357; Skillman, E. D., Kennicutt, R. C. & Hodge, P. W. 1989, ApJ, 347, 875; van den Bergh, S. 2008, ArXiv e-prints, 807, arXiv:0807.2798; van den Bergh, S. 1994, AJ, 107, 1328; Whitmore, B. C. 2002, Extragalactic Star Clusters, 207, 367

Telescopes and Instrumentation

6-11 (PDF)
G.T. van Belle et al.
The VLTI PRIMA Facility

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...6V
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
van Belle, G.T.; Sahlmann, J.; Abuter, R.; Accardo, M.; Andolfato, L.; Brillant, S.; de Jong, J.; Derie, F.; Delplancke, F.; Duc, T.P.; Dupuy, C.; Gilli, B.; Gitton, P.; Haguenauer, P.; Jocou, L.; Jost, A.; Di Lieto, N.; Frahm, R.; Ménardi, S.; Morel, S.; Moresmau, J.-M.; Palsa, R.; Popovic, D.; Pozna, E.; Puech, F.; Lévêque, S.; Ramirez, A.; Schuhler, N.; Somboli, F.; Wehner, S.; The ESPRI Consortium
AA(ESO) AB(ESO; Observatoire de Genève, Sauverny, Switzerland) AC(ESO) AD(ESO) AE(ESO) AF(ESO) AG(Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE)) AH(ESO) AI(ESO) AJ(ESO) AK(ESO) AL(ESO) AM(ESO) AN(ESO) AO(CNRS, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de l'Observatoire de Grenoble, France) AP(ESO) AQ(ESO) AR(ESO) AS(ESO) AT(ESO) AU(ESO) AV(ESO) AW(ESO) AX(ESO) AY(ESO) AZ(ESO) BA(ESO) BB(ESO) BC(ESO) BD(ESO) BE(ESPRI (Exoplanet Search with PRIma Consortium: Observatoire de Genève, Sauverny, Switzerland; Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) Heidelberg, Germany; and the Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany)
Abstract:
The Phase Referenced Imaging and Microarcsecond Astrometry (PRIMA) instrument was recently delivered to the summit of Cerro Paranal and installed as part of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) infrastructure. PRIMA is designed to (i) provide phase-referenced interferometric imaging at milliarcsecond scales, (ii) enable faint star science several magnitudes fainter than the current atmospheric limits of the VLTI, and (iii) provide astrometric measurements at the tens of micro-arcsecond level. PRIMA has successfully seen first fringes and is currently (as of late 2008) undergoing initial commissioning tests.
References:
Delplancke, F. 2008, New Astronomy Review, 52, 199; Delplancke, F. et al. 2003, Ap&SS, 286, 99; Eisenhauer, F. et al. 2008, SPIE Conference Series, 7013; Elias, N. M. et al. 2008, in IAU Symposium, Vol. 249, 119; Lane, B. F. & Colavita, M. M. 2003, AJ, 125, 1623; Lane, B. F. et al. 2000, SPIE Conference Series, 4006, 452; Launhardt, R. et al. 2008, in IAU Symposium, 248, 417; Lazorenko, P. F. et al. 2007, A&A, 471, 1057; Leveque, S. A. et al. Proc SPIE, 4838, 983; Nijenhuis, J. et al. 2008, in SPIE Conference Series, 7013; Pepe, F. et al. 2008, SPIE Conference Series, 7013; Sahlmann, J. et al. 2008a, in SPIE Conference Series, 7013; Sahlmann, J. et al. 2008b, in IAU Symposium, Vol. 248, 124; Shao, M. & Colavita, M. M. 1992, A&A, 262, 353; Tubbs, R. et al. 2008, in IAU Symposium, Vol. 248, 132; van Belle, G. T. et al. 2008, in SPIE Conference Series, Vol. 7013

Conference Supplement

9-12 (PDF)
R. Gratton
Abundances in Globular Cluster Stars: What is the Relation with Dwarf Galaxies?

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134S...9G
Section:
Conference Supplement
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Gratton, R.
AA(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Italy)
Abstract:
In the last few years increasing evidence has accumulated for some chemical evolution within globular clusters. The evidence is much clearer for the most massive clusters. Many authors have proposed that (at least the most massive) globular clusters may be closely related to the nuclei of dwarf galaxies. I review recent results on the chemical inhomogeneities in globular clusters and discuss the perspectives opened up by these results.
References:
Bedin, L. et al. 2004, ApJ, 605, L125; Bellazzini, M. et al. 2008, AJ, 136, 1147; Belokurov, V. et al. 2006, ApJ, 642, L137; Carretta, E. et al. 2004, ApJ, 610, L25; Carretta, E. et al. 2006, A&A, 450, 523; Carretta, E. et al. 2007a, A&A, 464, 927; Carretta, E. et al. 2007b, ApJ, 671, L125; Dabringhausen, J., Hilker, M. & Kroupa, P. 2008, MNRAS, 386, 864; D’Antona, F. et al. 2005, ApJ, 631, 868; De Angeli, F. et al. 2005, AJ, 130, 116; Decressin, T. et al. 2007, A&A, 464, 1029; Denisenkov, P. A. & Denisenkova, S. N. 1990, SvAL, 16, 275; Ferraro, F. et al. 2004, ApJ, 603, L81; Fuentes-Carrera, I. et al. 2008, A&A, 483, 769; Geisler, D. et al. 2007, PASP, 119, 939; Gilmore, G. et al. 2007, ApJ, 663, 948; Gratton, R. G. et al. 2001, A&A, 369, 87; Gratton, R. G. et al. 2005, A&A, 442, 947; Harris, W. E. 1996, AJ, 112, 1487; Ivezic, Z. et al. 2008, ApJ, 684, 287; Kirby, E. N. et al. 2008, arXiv:0807.1925; Kraft, R. 1994, PASP, 106, 553; Langer, G. E., Hoffman, R. & Sneden, C. 1993, PASP, 105, 301; Letarte, B. et al. 2006, A&A, 453, 547; Mackey, A. D. et al. 2008, ApJ, 681, L17; Meylan, G. et al. 2001, AJ, 122, 830; Milone, A. et al. 2008, ApJ, 673, 241; Mottini, M. & Wallerstein, G. 2008, AJ, 136, 731; Norris, J. & Da Costa, G. S. 1995, ApJ, 447, 680; Odenkirchen, M. et al. 2001, ApJ, 548, L165; Pancino, E. et al. 2002, ApJ, 568, L101; Piotto, G. et al. 2005, ApJ, 621, 777; Piotto, G. et al. 2007, ApJL, 661, L53; Ramirez, S. V. & Cohen, J. G. 2002, AJ, 123, 3277; Recio-Blanco, A. et al. 2006, A&A, 452, 875; Rosenberg, A. et al. 1999, AJ, 118, 2306; Sbordone, L. et al. 2007, A&A, 465, 815; Smith, V. et al. 2000, AJ, 119, 1239; Stanford, L. et al. 2006, ApJ, 647, 1075; Suntzeff, R. P. & Kraft, R. 1996, AJ, 111, 1913; Tolstoy, E. et al. 2003, AJ, 125, 707; Venn, K. A. et al. 2004, AJ, 128, 1177; Ventura, P. et al. 2001, ApJ, 550, L65; Villanova, A. et al. 2007, ApJ, 663, 296; Yong, D. et al. 2008, ApJ, 684, 1159; Yong, D. & Grundahl, F. 2007, ApJ, 672, L29

Telescopes and Instrumentation

12-13 (PDF)
S. D'Odorico
News on the Commissioning of X-shooter

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...12D
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
D'Odorico, S.
AA(ESO)
References:
Vernet J. et al. 2007, The Messenger, 130, 5

Conference Supplement

13-17 (PDF)
S. Cassisi et al.
Evidence for Sub-Populations in Globular Clusters: Their Properties and Relationship with Cluster Properties

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134S..13C
Section:
Conference Supplement
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Cassisi, S.; Bragaglia, A.; Gratton, R.; Milone, A.; Piotto, G.; Renzini, A.
AA(INAF – Astronomical Observatory of Teramo, Italy) AB(INAF – Astronomical Observatory of Bologna, Italy) AC(INAF – Astronomical Observatory of Padova, Italy) AD(Department of Astronomy, University of Padova, Italy) AE(Department of Astronomy, University of Padova, Italy) AF(INAF – Astronomical Observatory of Padova, Italy)
Abstract:
An increasing number of both photometric and spectroscopic observations over the last decade have shown the existence of distinct sub-populations in some Galactic globular clusters. This evidence severely challenges the paradigm of globular clusters as the prototypes of single, simple stellar populations. In this review, we briefly summarise the main empirical findings collected so far and discuss the properties of these sub-populations and their possible relationship with global cluster properties.
References:
Anderson, J. 1997, PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley Baumgardt, H., Makino, J. & Hut, P. 2005, ApJ, 620, 238; Bedin, L. R. et al. 2000, A&A, 363, 159; Bedin, L. R. et al. 2004, ApJ, 605, L125; Busso, G. et al. 2007, A&A, 474, 105; Calamida, A. et al. 2007, ApJ, 670, 400; Calamida, A. et al. 2008, in preparation Caloi, V. & D’Antona, F. 2007, A&A, 463, 949; Carretta, E. et al. 2006, A&A, 450, 523; Cassisi, S. et al. 2008, ApJ, 672, L115; Choi, E. & Yi, S. K. 2007, MNRAS, 375, L1; Cohen, J. G., Briley, M. M. & Stetson, P. B. 2002, AJ, 123, 2525; D’Antona, F. & Caloi, V. 2004, ApJ, 611, 871; Decressin, T. et al. 2007, A&A, 464, 1029; Ferraro, F. R. et al. 1998, ApJ, 500, 311; Ferraro, F. R., Bellazzini, M. & Pancino, E. 2002, ApJ, 573, L95; Gratton, R. G. et al. 2001, A&A, 369, 87; Gratton, R., Sneden, C. & Carretta, E. 2004, ARAA, 42, 385; Hesser, J. E. et al. 1982, AJ, 87, 1470; Hughes, J. et al. 2004, AJ, 127, 980; King, I. R. et al. 1998, ApJ, 492, L37; Lee, Y.-W. et al. 2005, ApJ, 621, L57; Marino, A. F. et al. 2008, A&A, in press (astro-ph/0808.1414) Milone, A. P. et al. 2008, ApJ, 673, 241; Miocchi, P. 2007, MNRAS, 381, 103; Norris, J. E. 2004, ApJ, 612, L25; Noyola, E., Gebhardt, K. & Bergmann, M. 2008, ApJ, 676, 1008; Pancino, E. et al. 2000, ApJ, 534, L83; Pancino, E. et al. 2003, MNRAS, 345, 683; Pancino, E. et al. 2007, ApJ, 661, L155; Piotto, G. et al. 1999, AJ, 118, 1727; Piotto, G. et al. 2005, ApJ, 621, 777; Piotto, G. et al. 2007, ApJ, 661, L53; Piotto, G. 2008, Mem. Soc. Astr. It., 79, 334; Recio-Blanco, A. et al. 2006, A&A, 452, 875; Renzini, A. 2008, MNRAS, in press (astro-ph/0808.4095) Rich, R. M. et al. 1997, ApJ, 484, L25; Salaris, M., Cassisi, S. & Pietrinferni, A. 2008, ApJ, 678, L25; Salaris, M., Cassisi, S. & Weiss, A. 2002, PASP, 114, 375; Siegel, M. H. et al. 2007, ApJ, 667, L57; Sollima, A. et al. 2005, ApJ, 634, 332; Stanford, L. M. et al. 2006, ApJ, 647, 1075; Trenti, M. et al. 2007, MNRAS, 374, 857; Ventura, P. & D’Antona, F. 2008, MNRAS, 385, 2034; Ventura, P. et al. 2001, ApJ, 550, L65; Villanova, S. et al. 2007, ApJ, 663, 296; Yong, D. & Grundahl, F. 2008, ApJ, 672, L29

Telescopes and Instrumentation

14-18 (PDF)
G. Monnet
Report on the JENAM 2008 Meeting Symposium Science with the E-ELT

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...14M
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Monnet, G.
AA(ESO)
Abstract:
The symposium Science with the E-ELT was held at the Joint European and National Astronomy Meeting (JENAM) 2008 meeting. It featured presentations on the development of a comprehensive E-ELT science case and how it is driving the detailed design of the facility, followed by talks addressing topical observational domains in which the E-ELT should have a major scientific impact. All presentations can be accessed at http://www.eso.org/sci/facilities/eelt/science/meeting/jenam08/EELT_JENAM08_Programme.pdf.
References:
Bland-Hawthorn, J. 2006, New Astronomy Reviews, 50, 237; Hook, I. M. (Ed.) 2005, The Science Case for the European Extremely Large Telescope: The next step in mankind's quest for the Universe, http://www-astro.physics.ox.ac.uk/~imh/ELT/; Liske, J. et al. 2008, The Messenger, 133, 10; Spyromilio, J. et al. 2008, The Messenger, 133, 2

Conference Supplement

18-22 (PDF)
F. D’Antona, P. Ventura
Linking Chemical Signatures of Globular Clusters to Chemical Evolution

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134S..18D
Section:
Conference Supplement
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
D’Antona, F.; Ventura, P.
AA(INAF - Astronomical Observatory of Rome, Italy) AB(INAF - Astronomical Observatory of Rome, Italy)
Abstract:
The majority of Globular Clusters (GC) show chemical inhomogeneities in the composition of their stars, apparently attributable to a second stellar generation in which the forming gas is enriched by hot CNO-cycled material processed in stars belonging to a first stellar generation. We review the reasons why the site of the nucleo-synthesis can be identified with hot-bottom burning in the envelopes of massive asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and super-AGB stars. The analysis of spectroscopic data and photometric signatures, such as the horizontal branch morphology, shows that the percentage of ‘anomalous’ stars is 50 % or more in most GCs examined so far. If anomalies are the rule and not the exception, then they clearly are closely related to the dynamical way in which GCs form and survive. We show a possible solution obtained by a hydrodynamical model followed by the N-body evolution of the two stellar populations, and propose that most GCs survive thanks to the formation of the second stellar generation.
References:
Angulo, C. et al. 1999, Nucl. Phys. A, 656, 3; Bedin, L. R. et al. 2004, ApJ, 605, L125; Bekki, K. & Norris, J. E. 2006, ApJ, 637, L109; Bonifacio, P. et al. 2002, A&A, 390, 91; Busso, G. et al. 2007, A&A, 474, 105; Caloi, V. & D’Antona, F. 2005, A&A, 121, 95; Caloi, V. & D’Antona, F. 2007, A&A, 463, 949; Canuto, V. M., Goldman, I. & Mazzitelli, I. 1996, ApJ, 473, 550; Carretta, E. et al. 2005, A&A, 433, 597; Cohen, J. G., Briley, M. M. & Stetson, P. B. 2002, AJ, 123, 2525; Cohen, J. G. & Meléndez, J. 2005, AJ, 129, 303; Cottrell, P. L. & Da Costa, G. S. 1981, ApJ, 245, L79; D’Antona, F. et al. 2002, A&A, 395, 69; D’Antona, F. & Caloi, V. 2004, ApJ, 611, 871; D’Antona, F. & Caloi, V. 2008, MNRAS, 390, 693; D’Antona, F. et al. 2005, ApJ, 631, 868; Decressin, T. et al. 2007a, A&A, 464, 1029; D’Ercole, A. et al. 2008, MNRAS, in press Gratton, R. G., Sneden, C. & Carretta, E. 2004, ARA&A, 42, 385; Hale, S. E. et al. 2002, Phys. Rev. C, 65, 5801; Iben, I. & Renzini, A. 1983, ARA&A, 21, 271; Ivanova, N. et al. 2008, MNRAS, 386, 553; Karakas, A. & Lattanzio, J. C. 2007, PASA, 24, 103; King, I. R. et al. 1998, ApJ, 492, L37; Moehler, S. et al. 2004, A&A, 415, 313; Moehler, S. et al. 2007, A&A, 475, L5; Norris, J. E. 2004, ApJL, 612, L25; Pasquini, L. et al. 2005, A&A, 441, 549; Pasquini, L. et al. 2008, A&A, 489, 315; Piotto, G. et al. 2005, ApJ, 621, 777; Piotto, G. et al. 2007, ApJ, 661, L53; Pumo, M. L., D’Antona, F. & Ventura, P. 2008, ApJ, 672, L25; Richer, H. B. et al. 2006, Science, 313, 936; Ritossa, C., Garca-Berro, E. & Iben, I. J. 1999, ApJ, 515, 381; Salaris, M. et al. 2006, ApJ, 645, 1131; Siess, L. 2007a, A&A, 476, 893; Siess, L. 2007b, Why Galaxies Care About AGB Stars: Their Importance as Actors and Probes, in ASP Conf. Series, 378, 9; Ventura, P. & D’Antona, F. 2005, A&A, 431, 279; Yong, D. & Grundahl, F. 2008, ApJ, 672, L29

Astronomical Science

20-24 (PDF)
N. Nardetto et al.
From the Dynamics of Cepheids to the Milky Way Rotation and the Calibration of the Distance Scale

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...20N
Section:
Astronomical Science
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Nardetto, N.; Kervella, P.; Barnes, T.; Bersier, D.; Fokin, A.; Fouqué, P.; Gillet, D.; Groh, J.; Kraus, S.; Mathias, P.; Mérand, A.; Millour, F.; Mourard, D.; Stoekl, A.
AA(Universidad de Concepción, Chile; Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany; Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France) AB(Observatoire de Paris, France) AC(McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, USA) AD(Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, UK) AE(Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia) AF(Observatoire de Toulouse, France) AG(Observatoire de Haute Provence,France) AH(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany) AI(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany) AJ(Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France) AK(ESO) AL(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany) AM(Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France) AN(Observatoire de Lyon, France)
Abstract:
High precision spectroscopic measurements of ten southern Galactic Cepheid stars with the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) on the 3.6 m telescope at La Silla has allowed detailed analysis of the dynamical structure of their atmospheres and close environment. The results have consequences for the calibration of the cosmic distance scale, and show that the rotation of the Milky Way is probably simpler than previously thought. However, a full understanding of the effect of spectral line asymmetries still requires the development of dedicated models.
References:
Freedman, W. et al. 2001, ApJ, 553, 47; Joy, A. H. 1939, ApJ, 89, 356J; Kervella, P. et al. 2004, 416, 941; Kervella, P. et al. 2006, A&A, 448, 623–631; Kervella, P. et al. 2008, A&A, 480, 167; Fokin, A. B. 1991, MNRAS, 250, 258; Fouqué, P. et al. 2007, A&A, 476, 73; Hubble, E. 1929, PNAS, 15, 168; Leavitt, H. S. 1908, AnHar., 60, 87; Mathias, P. et al. 2006, A&A, 457, 575; Mérand, A. et al. 2005, A&A, 438, L9-L12; Mérand, A. et al. 2007, ApJ, 664, 1093; Nardetto, N. et al. 2006, A&A 453, 309-319; Nardetto, N. et al. 2007, A&A, 471, 661; Nardetto, N. et al. 2008a, A&A, 489, 1255; Nardetto, N. et al. 2008b, A&A, 489, 1263; Pont, F. et al. 1994, A&A, 285, 415; Shapley, H. 1918, ApJ, 48, 279

Conference Supplement

23-27 (PDF)
K.A. Venn, V.M. Hill
Chemical Signatures in Dwarf Galaxies

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134S..23V
Section:
Conference Supplement
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Venn, K.A.; Hill, V.M.
AA(University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada) AB(Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Nice, France)
Abstract:
Chemical signatures in dwarf galaxies describe the examination of specific elemental abundance ratios to investigate the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies, particularly when compared with the variety of stellar populations in the Galaxy. Abundance ratios can come from HII region emission lines, planetary nebulae, or supernova remnants, but mostly they come from stars. Since stars can live a very long time, for example, a 0.8 MSun star born at the time of the Big Bang would only now be ascending the red giant branch, and, if, for the most part, its quiescent main sequence lifetime had been uneventful, then it is possible that the surface chemistry of stars actually still resembles their natal chemistry. Detailed abundances of stars in dwarf galaxies can be used to reconstruct their chemical evolution, which we now find to be distinct from any other component of the Galaxy, questioning the assertion that dwarf galaxies like these built up the Galaxy. Potential solutions to reconciling dwarf galaxy abundances and Galaxy formation models include the timescale for significant merging and the possibility for uncovering different stellar populations in the new ultra-faint dwarfs.
References:
Abadi, M. G. et al. 2003, ApJ, 597, 21; Battaglia, G. et al. 2006, A&A, 459, 423; Belokurov, V. et al. 2007, ApJ, 654, 897; Bellazzini, M. et al. 2006, A&A, 446, 1; Brook, C. et al. 2007, ApJ, 661, 10; de Blok, W. J. G. & Walter, F. 2000, ApJ, 537, 95; Demers, S., Battinelli, P. & Kunkel, W. E. 2006, ApJ, 636, 85; Eggen, O., Lynden-Bell, D. & Sandage, A. R. 1962, ApJ, 136, 748; Fenner, Y. et al. 2006, ApJ, 646, 184; Geisler, D. et al. 2005, AJ, 129, 1428; Helmi, A. et al. 2006, ApJ, 651, L121; Hill, V. M. et al. 2008, in prep. Kirby, E. N. et al. 2008, ApJ, 685, 43; Koch, A. et al. 2008, AJ, 135, 1580; Lanfranchi, G. A., Matteucci, F. & Cescutti, G. 2006, A&A, 453, 67; Lanfranchi, G. A., Matteucci, F. & Cescutti, G. 2008, A&A, 481, 635; Leaman, R., et al. 2008, ApJ, submitted Letarte, B., Hill, V. M. & Tolstoy, E. 2007, EAS Publications Series, 24, 33; Letarte, B. et al. 2006, A&A, 453, 547; Marcolini, A. et al. 2008, MNRAS, 386, 2173; Olszewski, E. W., Suntzeff, N. & Mateo, M. 1996, ARAA, 34, 511; Pompéia, L. et al. 2008, A&A, 480, 379; Sbordone, L. et al. 2007, A&A, 465, 815; Schoerck, T. et al. 2008, arXiv:0809.1172; Shetrone, M. D., Bolte, M. & Stetson, P. B. 1998, AJ, 115, 1888; Shetrone, M. D. et al. 2003, AJ, 125, 684; Simon, J. & Geha, M. 2007, ApJ, 670, 313; Smecker-Hane, T. et al. 2002, ApJ, 566, 239; Suntzeff, N. 1985; in ESO Workshop on Production and Distribution of C, N, O Elements, European Southern Observatory, 83 Tinsley, B. M. 1979, ApJ, 229, 1046; Tolstoy, E. et al. 2003, AJ, 125, 707; Tolstoy, E. et al. 2001, MNRAS, 327, 918; Travaglio, C. et al. 2004, ApJ, 601, 864; Venn, K. A. et al. 2004, AJ, 128, 1177

Astronomical Science

25-29 (PDF)
M.T. Botticella et al.
STRESS Counting Supernovae

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...25B
Section:
Astronomical Science
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Botticella, M.T.; Cappellaro, E.; Riello, M.; Greggio, L.; Benetti, S.; Patat, F.; Turatto, M.; Altavilla, G.; Pastorello, A.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.; Harutyunyan, A.; Pignata, G.; Taubenberger, S.
AA(Queen's University Belfast, UK) AB(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Italy) AC(Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, UK) AD(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Italy) AE(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Italy) AF(ESO) AG(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Catania, Italy) AH(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Italy) AI(Queen's University Belfast, UK) AJ(Queen's University Belfast, UK) AK(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Italy) AL(INAF - Fundación Galileo Galilei, Canary Islands, Spain) AM(Departemento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Chile) AN(Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Garching, Germany)
Abstract:
The rate of occurrence of supernovae (SNe) is linked to some of the basic ingredients of galaxy evolution, such as the star formation rate, the chemical enrichment and feedback processes. SN rates at intermediate redshift and their dependence on specific galaxy properties have been investigated in the Southern inTermediate Redshift ESO Supernova Search (STRESS). The rate of core collapse SNe (CC SNe) at a redshift of around 0.25 is found to be a factor two higher than the local value, whereas the SNe Ia rate remains almost constant. SN rates in red and blue galaxies were also measured and it was found that the SNe Ia rate seems to be constant in galaxies of different colour, whereas the CC SN rate seems to peak in blue galaxies, as in the local Universe.
References:
Alard, C. 2000, A&A, 144, 363; Barris, B. J. & Tonry, J. L. 2006, ApJ, 637, 427; Bertin, E. & Arnouts, S. 1996, A&A, 117, 393; Blanc, G. & Greggio, L. 2008, New A., 13, 606; Botticella, M. T. et al. 2008, A&A, 479, 49; Cappellaro, E. et al. 1999, A&A, 351, 459; Cappellaro, E. et al. 2005, A&A, 430, 83; Dahlen, T. et al. 2004, ApJ, 613, 189; Greggio, L. 2005, A&A, 441, 1055; Hardin, D. et al. 2000, ApJ, 613, 189; Hopkins, A. M. & Beacom, J. F. 2006, ApJ, 651, 142; Hippelein et al. 2003, A&A, 402, 65; Madgwick, D. et al. 2003, ApJ, 599, L33; Mannucci et al. 2006, MNRAS, 370, 773; Neill, J. D. et al. 2006, ApJ, 132, 1126; Neill, J. D. et al. 2007, ApJ, 661, 123; Pain, R. et al. 2002, ApJ, 577, 120; Riello, M. & Patat F. 2005, MNRAS, 362, 671; Smartt, S. et al. 2008, arXiv:0809.0403; Tonry, J. L. et al. 2003, ApJ, 594, 1

Conference Supplement

28-30 (PDF)
K.C. Freeman
Chemical Evolution of Dwarf Galaxies and Stellar Clusters: Conference Summary

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134S..28C
Section:
Conference Supplement
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Freeman, K.C.
AA(Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia)
Abstract:
The summary begins by considering the contributions on the differences between globular clusters (GCs) and dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. Then I discuss globular clusters: the topics include multiple sequences in the colour-magnitude plane, light element abundance anomalies, globular cluster systems and other issues. The next section is devoted to dwarf galaxies, summarising new results on their kinematics, masses and baryon content, their star formation histories, and their chemical abundance ranges and chemical signatures. The last section discusses some of the other interesting related points that came up during the meeting.

Astronomical Science

30-34 (PDF)
G. Chincarini et al.
Swift, VLT and Gamma-Ray Bursts: The Richness and Beauty of the Global View

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...30C
Section:
Astronomical Science
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Chincarini, G.; Margutti, R.; Covino, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; Fugazza, D.; Guidorzi, C.; Mao, J.; Moretti, A.; Capalbi, M.; Cusumano, G.; D'Elia, V.; Della Valle, M.; Fiore, F.; Mangano, V.; Molinari, E.; Perri, M.; Romano, P.; Salvaterra, R.; Zerbi, F.; Campana, S.; Giommi, P.; Guarneri, A.; Stella, L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Pian, E.; Palazzi, E.; Piranomonte, S.; Antonelli, A.; Salotti, L.; Soto, A.F.
AA(Università Milano Bicocca, Milano, Italy; INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy) AB(Università Milano Bicocca, Milano, Italy; INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy) AC(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy) AD(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy) AE(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy) AF(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy) AG(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy) AH(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy) AI(ASI Science Data Center, Frascati, Italy) AJ(INAF - Istituto di Astrofisica e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, Palermo, Italy) AK(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Monteporzio-Catone, Italy) AL(ESO; INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli, Italy) AM(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Monteporzio-Catone, Italy) AN(INAF - Istituto di Astrofisica e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, Palermo, Italy) AO(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy) AP(ASI Science Data Center, Frascati, Italy) AQ(INAF - Istituto di Astrofisica e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, Palermo, Italy) AR(Università Milano Bicocca, Milano, Italy) AS(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy) AT(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy) AU(ASI Science Data Center, Frascati, Italy) AV(Università di Bologna, Italy) AW(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Monteporzio-Catone, Italy) AX(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy) AY(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Italy) AZ(INAF - Istituto di Astrofisica e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, Italy) BA(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Monteporzio-Catone, Italy) BB(INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Monteporzio-Catone, Italy) BC(ASI Science Data Center, Frascati, Italy) BD(Observatorio Astronomico de Universitad de Valencia, Spain)
Abstract:
In this paper we emphasise the role of ESO in the optical follow-up of gamma-ray burst light curves and the importance of early observations via rapid response mode. We describe some of the best short gamma-ray burst observations ever and illustrate the need for spectroscopic data. Specifically, we show how the exceptional dataset collected for the naked-eye burst GRB080319B, the brightest burst ever, has proved very challenging for current theoretical models. The final aim is the understanding of the physical processes that make such phenomena the true beacons at the edge of the Universe.
References:
Chincarini, G. et al. 2003, The Messenger, 113, 40; D’Elia, V. et al. 2008, ApJ, in press; Fynbo, J. et al. 2007, The Messenger, 130, 43.; Gehrels, N. et al. 2004, ApJ, 611, 1005; Li, T.-P. 2001, Chinese Journal A & A, 1, 313; Lyutikov, M. & Blandford, R. 2004, ASPC, 312, 449; Nakar, E. 2007, PhR, 442, 166.; Piranomonte, S. et al. 2008, A&A, 491, 183; Racusin, J. L. et al. 2008, Nature, 455, 183
35-40 (PDF)
S. Lilly, The zCOSMOS team
The zCOSMOS Data Release 2: the 'zCOSMOS-bright 10k-sample' and structure in the Universe out to redshifts of order unity

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...35L
Section:
Astronomical Science
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Lilly, S.; The zCOSMOS team
AA(ETH Zurich, Switzerland) AB(The zCOSMOS team)
Abstract:
The global COSMOS project is aimed at understanding the evolution of galaxies and active galactic nuclei, and in particular the role of the galactic environment in that evolution. It is built around observations of a single equatorial 1.7 deg2 field corresponding to transverse dimensions of 100 x 100 Mpc2 at high redshift. The COSMOS field is emerging as the premier extragalactic survey field, and is currently the object of study of large observational programmes on most of the major observational facilities around the world. The zCOSMOS programme on the VLT is securing spectroscopic redshifts for a very large number of galaxies and quasars over the whole redshift range 0 < z < 3.5, using the VIMOS spectrograph. This allows the environment of galaxies to be characterised on all scales from that of the immediate group environment, 100 kpc, up to the 100 Mpc scales of the cosmic web. The second public data release, DR2, of approximately 10000 zCOSMOS spectra, took place via the ESO Science Data Archive in October 2008. This article describes the current status of the project and in particular of this so-called '10k-sample', and our reconstruction of large-scale structure in the Universe out to z ~ 1.
References:
Ilbert, O. et al. 2008, arXiv:0809.2101, to appear in ApJ; Kitzbichler, M. G. & White, S. D. M. 2007, MNRAS, 376, 2; Knobel, C. et al. 2008, ApJ, submitted; Kovac, K. et al. 2008, ApJ, submitted; Lilly, S. J. et al. 2007, ApJS, 172, 70; Lilly, S. J. et al. 2008, ApJS, submitted; Scoville, N. Z. et al. 2007, ApS, 12,

Astronomical News

42-45 (PDF)
M. Arnaboldi et al.
Preparing for the ESO Public Surveys with VISTA and VST: New Tools for Phase 2 and a Workshop with the Survey PIs

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...42A
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Arnaboldi, M.; Dietrich, J.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hummel, W.; Hussain, G.; Neeser, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Bierwirth, T.; Comeron, F.; Dorigo, D.; Emerson, J.; Nunes, P.; Primas, F.
AA(ESO; The ESO Survey Team) AB(ESO; The ESO Survey Team) AC(ESO; The ESO Survey Team) AD(ESO; The ESO Survey Team) AE(ESO; The ESO Survey Team) AF(ESO; The ESO Survey Team) AG(ESO; The ESO Survey Team) AH(ESO) AI(ESO) AJ(ESO) AK(School of Mathematical Science, Queen Mary University of London, UK & VISTA Consortium) AL(ESO) AM(ESO)
Abstract:
New Phase 2 tools are described to support service mode operations for large public surveys. A workshop was held with the principal investigators and selected team members of the VISTA and VST surveys to introduce the new tools.
References:
Arnaboldi, M. et al. 2007, The Messenger, 127, 28; Capaccioli, M., Mancini, D. & Sedmak, G. 2005, The Messenger, 120, 10; Emerson, J., McPherson, A. & Sutherland, W. 2006, The Messenger, 126, 41
45-45 (PDF)
ESO
Announcement of the Workshop The E-ELT Design Reference Mission and Science Plan 26–28 May 2009, ESO Garching, Germany / Imaging at the E-ELT 29 May 2009, ESO Garching, Germany

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...45
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
46-49 (PDF)
C. Turon et al.
The ESA-ESO Working Group on Galactic Populations, Chemistry and Dynamics

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...46T
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Turon, C.; Primas, F.; Binney, J.; Chiappini, C.; Drew, J.; Helmi, A.; Robin, A.; G. Ryan, S.
AA(GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, France) AB(ESO) AC(University of Oxford, UK) AD(Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland and INAF Trieste Observatory, Italy) AE(University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK) AF(Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Groningen, the Netherlands) AG(Observatoire de Besançon, France) AH(University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK)
Abstract:
ESA and ESO initiated a series of Working Groups to explore synergies between space- and ground-based instrumentation. The work of the fourth of these Working Groups, described in this article, focuses on Galactic stellar populations, their chemistry and dynamics, and identifies a set of top questions that future missions and/or ground-based facilities will help to answer. Its mandate was to focus on Gaia/ground synergies in the domain of Galactic science. The major recommendations are for ESA to guarantee the expected tremendous capabilities of Gaia, for ESO to consider the construction of highly multiplexed spectrographs for follow-up and complementary observations of selected Gaia targets, and for ESA and ESO to consider jointly ways to give European astronomers a lead in the exploitation of the Gaia catalogue.
References:
Peacock, J. A. et al. 2006, ESA–ESO Working Group Report on Fundamental Cosmology; Perryman, M. et al. 2005, ESA–ESO Working Group; Report on Extrasolar Planets; Wilson, T. L. & Elbaz, D. 2006, ESA–ESO Working Group Report on The Herschel–ALMA Synergies
50-52 (PDF)
J. Martin-Pintado
Report on the Workshop Interstellar Medium and Star Formation with ALMA: Looking to the Future. A Workshop to Honour Tom Wilson held at Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain, 16–17 June 2008

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...50M
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Martin-Pintado, J.
AA(Departamento de Astrofisica Molecular, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain)
Abstract:
In June 2008, a group of friends and colleagues of Tom Wilson gathered in Madrid to honour his scientific career in a workshop on ALMA organised by three of his PhD students. The workshop was devoted to reviewing recent progress in our understanding of the main topics of research that Tom has pursued during his career: the physics and chemistry of the interstellar medium and how stars form. Specific topics included Hii regions, molecular clouds, clumps, cores, outflows and masers in Galactic and extragalactic environments, mainly from an observational perspective.
52-52 (PDF)
ESO
Award of the Ioannes Marcus Marci Medal to Tom Wilson, Associate Director for ALMA

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...52
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
53-55 (PDF)
E. Masciadri
Report on the Conference Optical Turbulence - Astronomy meets Meteorology

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...53M
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Masciadri, E.
AA(INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Florence, Italy)
Abstract:
The spatial resolution of current and future ground-based telescopes is limited by the optical turbulence of the atmosphere. An interdisciplinary conference of astronomers, meteorologists and atmospheric physicists to consider the study, characterisation and correction of atmospheric turbulence is reported.
56-57 (PDF)
H.U. Käufl, G.P. Tozzi
Report on the Conference Future Ground-based Solar System Research: Synergies with Space Probes and Space Telescopes

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...56K
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Käufl, H.U.; Tozzi, G.P.
AA(ESO) AB(INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy)
Abstract:
An interdisciplinary workshop bringing together Solar System researchers, space mission engineers and scientists, ground- and space-based observers and theoreticians is summarised. The broad scope of the meeting covered current and future space missions, planned ground-based facilities and their closer interaction.
57-59 (PDF)
B. Nikolic et al.
Report on the ALMA Workshop Simulations for ALMA

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...57N
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Nikolic, B.; Richer, J.; Gueth, F.; Laing, R.
AA(University of Cambridge, UK) AB(University of Cambridge, UK) AC(IRAM, Grenoble, France) AD(ESO)
Abstract:
A workshop on Simulations for ALMA was held on 8-10 September 2008 at IRAM. About 40 participants from Europe, North America and Japan attended, and discussed many aspects of ALMA imaging: topics included detailed scientific simulations of astronomical observations together with more technical simulations of instrumental and atmospheric effects and the strategies for their correction. The workshop web page contains the presentations made at the meeting and is available from http://www.mrao.cam.ac.uk.
59-60 (PDF)
B. Brandl, R. Stuik
Report on the Conference 400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...59B
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Brandl, B.; Stuik, R.
AA(Leiden Observatory, the Netherlands) AB(Leiden Observatory, the Netherlands)
61-61 (PDF)
ESO
Announcement of the ESO-Porto Conference Towards Other Earths: Perspectives and Limitations in the ELT Era

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134Q..61.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
61-61 (PDF)
ESO
Announcement of the EIROforum School of Instrumentation (ESI)

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134R..61.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
62-62 (PDF)
ESO
ESO ALMA Fellowship Programme

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...62.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
63-63 (PDF)
M. Cullum
Daniel Enard 1939-2008

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...63C
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Cullum, M.
AA(ESO)
64-64 (PDF)
ESO
New Staff at ESO

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...64.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
65-65 (PDF)
ESO
Fellows at ESO

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...65.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)
66-66 (PDF)
H. Boffin et al.
ESO at the European City of Science

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...66B
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Boffin, H.; Heyer, H.; Janssen, E.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO)
66-67 (PDF)
D. Pierce-Price et al.
ESO and the International Year of Astronomy 2009

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...66P
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Pierce-Price, D.; Russo, P.; Christensen, L.L.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO)
67-67 (PDF)
ESO
Personnel Movements

ADS BibCode:
2008Msngr.134...67.
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO
AA(ESO)