Messenger No. 177 (September 2019)

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Telescopes and Instrumentation

3-13 (PDF)
F. Patat et al.
The Distributed Peer Review Experiment

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5147
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.177....3P
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Patat, F.; Kerzendorf, W.; Bordelon, D.; Van de Ven, G.; Pritchard, T.
AA(ESO) AB(Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, USA; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, USA; Department of Computational Mathematics, Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, USA) AC(ESO) AD(Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Austria) AE(Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, USA)
Abstract:
All large, ground- and space-based astronomical facilities serving wide communities face a similar problem: in many cases the number of applications they receive in response to each call exceeds 1000. This poses a serious challenge to running an effective selection process under the classic peer-review paradigm, in which the proposals are assigned to pre-allocated panels with fixed compositions. Although, in principle, one could increase the size of the time allocation committee, this creates logistic and financial problems which place a practical limit on its maximum size, making this solution unviable beyond a certain volume of applications. For this reason, alternative solutions must be sought. One of these is the so-called Distributed Peer Review (DPR) in which, by submitting a proposal, the Principal Investigators (PIs) agree both to act as reviewers and to have their proposal reviewed by their peers. In this article we report the results of a DPR experiment run by ESO in Period 103, in parallel with the regular review by the Observing Programmes Committee (OPC).
References:
Andersen, M. et al. 2019, AAS, 233, 455.03; Ardabili, P. N. & Liu, M. 2013, CoRR, arxiv:1307.6528; Brinks, E. et al. 2012, The Messenger, 150, 20; Gallo, S. A., Sullivan, J. H. & Glisson, S. R. 2016, PLoS ONE, 11, e0165147; Huang, C. 2013, European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28, 1; Kerzendorf, W. E. 2017, Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy, arxiv:1705.05840; Kerzendorf, W. E. et al. 2019, submitted to Nature Astronomy Merrifield, M. R. & Saari, D. G. 2009, Astronomy and Geophysics, 50, 4.16 Mervis, J. 2014a, Science, 344, 1328; Mervis, J. 2014b, Science, 345, 248; Obrecht, M., Tibelius, K. & D’Aloisio, G. 2007, Research Evaluation, 16 (2), 79; Patat, F. 2016, The Messenger, 165, 2; Patat, F. et al. 2017, The Messenger, 169, 5 Patat, F. 2018a, The Messenger, 173, 7 Patat, F. 2018b, PASP, 130, 084501; Strolger, L.-G. et al. 2017, AJ, 153, 181
14-18 (PDF)
L. Coccato et al.
On the Telluric Correction of KMOS Spectra

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5148
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.177...14C
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Coccato, L.; Freudling, W.; Smette, A.; Sani, E.; Escartin, J.A.; Jung, Y.; Bazin, G.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO) AD(ESO) AE(ESO; Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany) AF(ESO) AG(ESO)
Abstract:
The presence of strong absorption lines in the atmospheric transmission spectrum affects spectroscopic observations, in particular those in the near- and mid-infrared. Therefore, there is the need to correct scientific observations for this effect, a process known as telluric correction. The use of a detailed model of the atmospheric transmission spectrum brings several advantages over the method of empirically deriving corrections using observations of a telluric standard star. In this paper, we discuss and compare the two methods applied to K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph (KMOS) observations and show the improvements in the quality of the final products obtained by implementing the modelling technique offered by the ESO molecfit sky tool.
References:
Clough, S. A., Iacono, M. J. & Moncet, J.-L. 2005, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 1576; Coccato, L. et al. 2019, Reflex KMOS tutorial, issue 6.0; Davies, R. et al. 2013, A&A, 558, 56; Freudling, W. et al. 2013, A&A, 559, 96; Kausch, W. et al. 2015, A&A, 576, 78; Sharples, R. et al. 2013, The Messenger, 151, 21; Smette, A. et al. 2015, A&A, 576, 77
19-23 (PDF)
F. Gonté et al.
Bringing the New Adaptive Optics Module for Interferometry (NAOMI) into Operation

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5149
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.177...19G
Section:
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Gonté, F.; Abad, J.A.; Abuter, R.; Aller Carpentier, E.; Alonso, J.; Andofalto, L.; Barriga, P.; Berger, J.-P.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Blanchard, I.; Bonnet, H.; Bourdarot, G.; Bourget, P.; Brast, R.; Bristow, P.; Caniguante, L.; Cerda, S.; Cid, C.; Correa, A.; Cottalorda, E.; Courtney-Barrer, B.; Darré, P.; Delabre, B.; Delboulbé, A.; Dembet, R.; Donaldson, R.; Dorn, R.; Dupeyron, J.; Dupuy, C.; Egner, S.; Eisenhauer, F.; Faundez, L.; Fedrigo, E.; Fischer, G.; Frank, C.; Fuenteseca, E.; Gitton, P.; Guerlet, T.; Guieu, S.; Gutierrez, P.; Haguenauer, P.; Haimerl, A.; Haubois, X.; Heritier, C.; Huber, S.; Hubin, N.; Jolley, P.; Jocou, L.; Kirchbauer, J.-P.; Kolb, J.; Kosmalski, J.; Krempl, P.; La Fuente, C.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Le Louarn, M.; Lilley, P.; Lopez, B.; Lopez, M.; Magnard, Y.; Marchetti, E.; Mclay, S.; Meilland, A.; Meister, A.; Mérand, A.; Moulin, T.; Pasquini, L.; Paufique, J.; Percheron, I.; Pettazzi, L.; Pfuhl, O.; Phan, D.; Pino, A.; Pirani, W.; Quentin, J.; Rakich, A.; Ramirez, A.; Ridings, R.; Riedel, M.; Reyes, J.; Rochat, S.; Sanchez, J.; Santos Tomás, G.; Schmid, C.; Shchekaturov, P.; Schuhler, N.; Seidel, M.; Soenke, C.; Stadler, E.; Stephan, C.; Suárez, M.; Todorović, M.; Valdes, G.; Verinaud, C.; Woillez, J.; Zins, G.; Zúñiga-Fernández, S.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO) AD(ESO) AE(ESO) AF(ESO) AG(ESO) AH(Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, France) AI(Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, France) AJ(ESO) AK(ESO) AL(Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, France) AM(ESO) AN(ESO) AO(ESO) AP(ESO) AQ(ESO) AR(ESO) AS(ESO) AT(Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, France) AU(ESO) AV(ESO) AW(ESO) AX(Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, France) AY(ESO) AZ(ESO) BA(ESO) BB(ESO) BC(ESO) BD(ESO) BE(Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany) BF(ESO) BG(ESO) BH(ESO) BI(ESO) BJ(ESO) BK(ESO) BL(ESO) BM(Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, France) BN(ESO) BO(ESO) BP(ESO) BQ(ESO) BR(ESO) BS(ESO) BT(ESO) BU(ESO) BV(Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, France) BW(ESO) BX(ESO) BY(ESO) BZ(KRP Mechatec GmbH, Garching, Germany) CA(ESO) CB(Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, France) CC(ESO) CD(ESO) CE(Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, France) CF(ESO) CG(Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, France) CH(ESO) CI(ESO) CJ(Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, France) CK(ESO) CL(ESO) CM(Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, France) CN(ESO) CO(ESO) CP(ESO) CQ(ESO) CR(Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany) CS(ESO) CT(ESO) CU(ESO) CV(ESO) CW(ESO) CX(ESO) CY(ESO) CZ(ESO) DA(ESO) DB(Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, France) DC(ESO) DD(ESO) DE(ESO) DF(Pactum LTD, London, UK) DG(ESO) DH(ESO) DI(ESO) DJ(Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, France) DK(ESO) DL(ESO) DM(ESO) DN(ESO) DO(ESO) DP(ESO) DQ(ESO) DR(ESO; Universidad de Valparaíso, Instituto de Física y Astronomía (IFA), Chile; Núcleo Milenio de Formación Planetaria (NPF), Valparaíso, Chile)
Abstract:
NAOMI was developed by a consortium composed of IPAG and ESO. Its Provisional Acceptance Chile review was held in April 2019. The NAOMI systems that have been installed on the Auxiliary Telescopes make the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) and its instruments much less dependent on the atmospheric and dome seeing conditions. NAOMI increases the interferometer’s operability and improves the performance of its instruments and, very early on, was identified as being critical to the VLTI. In this article, we review the project, describe its principles and architecture, and offer a preview of the improvements it brings to VLTI instruments.
References:
Arsenault, R. et al. 2003, The Messenger, 112, 7; Arsenault, R. et al. 2017, The Messenger, 168, 8; Beckers, J. M. et al. 1990, The Messenger, 60, 1; Bonaccini, D. et al. 1997, Proc. SPIE, 3126, 77 Gitton, P. et al. 2004, Proc. SPIE, 5491, 944; Gravity Collaboration 2017, The Messenger, 170, 10; Haguenauer, P. & Guieu, S. 2019, Proc. AO4ELT conference, in press Koehler, B. et al. 2004, The Messenger, 115, 15; Koehler, B. et al. 2002, The Messenger, 110, 21; Le Bouquin, J. B. et al. 2018, Proc. SPIE, 1070371; Léna, P. 1987, The Messenger, 50, 53; Lopez, B. et al. 2014, The Messenger, 157, 5; Scheithauer, S. et al. 2016, Proc. SPIE, 9909, 99092L Suárez Valles, M. 2012, Proc. SPIE, 8447, 84472Q Woillez, J. et al. 2015, The Messenger, 162, 18; Woillez, J. et al. 2019, A&A, 629, A41; Zins, G. et al. 2011, The Messenger, 146, 12

Astronomical Science

25-35 (PDF)
C. Goddi et al.
First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results and the Role of ALMA

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5150
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.177...24G
Section:
Astronomical Science
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Goddi, C.; Crew, G.; Impellizzeri, V.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Matthews, L.D.; Messias, H.; Rottmann, H.; Alef, W.; Blackburn, L.; Bronzwaer, T.; Chan, C.-K.; Davelaar, J.; Deane, R.; Dexter, J.; Doeleman, S.; Falcke, H.; Fish, V.L.; Fraga-Encinas, R.; Fromm, C.M.; Herrero-Illana, R.; Issaoun, S.; James, D.; Janssen, M.; Kramer, M.; Krichbaum, T.P.; De Laurentis, M.; Liuzzo, E.; Mizuno, Y.; Moscibrodzka, M.; Natarajan, I.; Porth, O.; Rezzolla, L.; Rygl, K.; Roelofs, F.; Ros, E.; Roy, A.L.; Shao, L.; van Langevelde, H.J.; van Bemmel, I.; Tilanus, R.; Torne, P.; Wielgus, M.; Younsi, Z.; Zensus, J.A.; The Event Horizon Telescope collaboration
AA(Department of Astrophysics, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Leiden Observatory—Allegro, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands) AB(Massachusetts Institute of Technology Haystack Observatory, Westford, USA) AC(Joint ALMA Observatory, Vitacura, Santiago de Chile, Chile) AD(Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics/Astronomical Observatory, University of Valencia, Spain) AE(Massachusetts Institute of Technology Haystack Observatory, Westford, USA) AF(Joint ALMA Observatory, Vitacura, Santiago de Chile, Chile) AG(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Bonn, Germany) AH(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Bonn, Germany) AI(Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian, Cambridge, USA) AJ(Department of Astrophysics, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands) AK(Steward Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona Tucson, USA) AL(Department of Astrophysics, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands) AM(Centre for Radio Astronomy Techniques and Technologies, Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa) AN(Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany) AO(Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian, Cambridge, USA) AP(Department of Astrophysics, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands) AQ(Massachusetts Institute of Technology Haystack Observatory, Westford, USA) AR(Department of Astrophysics, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands) AS(Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Germany) AT(ESO) AU(Department of Astrophysics, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands) AV(Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian, Cambridge, USA) AW(Department of Astrophysics, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands) AX(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Bonn, Germany) AY(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Bonn, Germany) AZ(Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Pancini,” Universitá di Napoli “Federico II”, Naples, Italy; INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Naples, Italy) BA(INAF–Istituto di Radioastronomia, Bologna, Italy) BB(Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Germany) BC(Department of Astrophysics, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands) BD(Centre for Radio Astronomy Techniques and Technologies, Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa) BE(Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands) BF(Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Germany) BG(INAF–Istituto di Radioastronomia, Bologna, Italy) BH(Department of Astrophysics, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands) BI(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Bonn, Germany) BJ(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Bonn, Germany) BK(Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing, China; Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Bonn, Germany) BL(Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC (JIVE), Dwingeloo, the Netherlands; Leiden Observatory—Allegro, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands) BM(Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC (JIVE), Dwingeloo, the Netherlands) BN(Department of Astrophysics, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Leiden Observatory—Allegro, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands) BO(Instituto de Radioastronomía Milimétrica, IRAM, Granada, Spain; Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Bonn, Germany) BP(Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian, Cambridge, USA) BQ(Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Dorking, UK; Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Germany) BR(Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Bonn, Germany)
Abstract:
In April 2019, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) collaboration revealed the first image of the candidate super- massive black hole (SMBH) at the centre of the giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 (M87). This event-horizon-scale image shows a ring of glowing plasma with a dark patch at the centre, which is interpreted as the shadow of the black hole. This breakthrough result, which represents a powerful confirmation of Einstein’s theory of gravity, or general relativity, was made possible by assembling a global network of radio telescopes operating at millimetre wavelengths that for the first time included the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The addition of ALMA as an anchor station has enabled a giant leap forward by increasing the sensitivity limits of the EHT by an order of magnitude, effectively turning it into an imaging array. The published image demonstrates that it is now possible to directly study the event horizon shadows of SMBHs via electromagnetic radiation, thereby transforming this elusive frontier from a mathematical concept into an astrophysical reality. The expansion of the array over the next few years will include new stations on different continents — and eventually satellites in space. This will provide progressively sharper and higher-fidelity images of SMBH candidates, and potentially even movies of the hot plasma orbiting around SMBHs. These improvements will shed light on the processes of black hole accretion and jet formation on event-horizon scales, thereby enabling more precise tests of general relativity in the truly strong field regime.
References:
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36-41 (PDF)
E. Schinnerer et al.
The Physics at High Angular resolution in Nearby GalaxieS (PHANGS) Surveys

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5151
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.177...36S
Section:
Astronomical Science
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Schinnerer, E.; Leroy, A.; Blanc, G.; Emsellem, E.; Hughes, A.; Rosolowsky, E.; Schruba, A.; Bigiel, F.; Escala, A.; Groves, B.; Kreckel, K.; Kruijssen, D.; Lee, J.; Meidt, S.; Pety, J.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Sandstrom, K.; Usero, A.; Barnes, A.; Belfiore, F.; Bešlić, I.; Chandar, R.; Chatzigiannakis, D.; Chevance, M.; Congiu, E.; Dale, D.; Faesi, C.; Gallagher, M.; Garcia-Rodriguez, A.; Glover, S.; Grasha, K.; Henshaw, J.; Herrera, C.; Ho, I.-T.; Hygate, A.; Jimenez-Donaire, M.; Kessler, S.; Kim, J.; Klessen, R.; Koch, E.; Lang, P.; Larson, K.; Le Reste, A.; Liu, D.; McElroy, R.; Nofech, J.; Ostriker, E.; Pessa Gutierrez, I.; Puschnig, J.; Querejeta, M.; Razza, A.; Saito, T.; Santoro, F.; Stuber, S.; Sun, J.; Thilker, D.; Turner, J.; Ubeda, L.; Utreras, J.; Utomo, D.; van Dyk, S.; Ward, J.; Whitmore, B.
AA(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany; Associate Scientist, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, USA) AB(The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA) AC(The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, USA; Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile) AD(ESO; Univ. Lyon, Univ. Lyon I, ENS Lyon, CNRS, CRAL, Saint-Genis-Laval, France) AE(CNRS/IRAP & UPS-OMP, Toulouse, France) AF(University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada) AG(Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany) AH(AIfA University Bonn, Bonn, Germany) AI(Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile) AJ(Australian National University, Canberra, Australia) AK(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany) AL(ARI/ZAH University Heidelberg, Germany) AM(CalTech/IPAC, Pasadena, USA) AN(Ghent University, Belgium) AO(Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique, Saint Martin d’Hères, France) AP(Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain) AQ(University of California San Diego, La Jolla, USA) AR(Observatorio Astronómico National (IGN), Madrid, Spain) AS(AIfA University Bonn, Bonn, Germany) AT(ESO) AU(AIfA University Bonn, Bonn, Germany) AV(University of Toledo, Toledo, USA) AW(AIfA University Bonn, Bonn, Germany) AX(ARI/ZAH University Heidelberg, Germany) AY(The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, USA) AZ(University of Wyoming, Laramie, USA) BA(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany) BB(The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA) BC(Observatorio Astronómico National (IGN), Madrid, Spain) BD(ITA/ZAH University Heidelberg, Germany) BE(Australian National University, Canberra, Australia) BF(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany) BG(Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique, Saint Martin d’Hères, France) BH(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany) BI(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany) BJ(CfA/Harvard & Smithsonian, Cambridge, USA) BK(The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA) BL(ARI/ZAH University Heidelberg, Germany) BM(ITA/ZAH University Heidelberg, Germany) BN(University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada) BO(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany) BP(CalTech/IPAC, Pasadena, USA) BQ(CNRS/IRAP & UPS-OMP, Toulouse, France) BR(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany) BS(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany) BT(University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada) BU(Princeton University, USA) BV(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany) BW(AIfA University Bonn, Bonn, Germany) BX(Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Observatorio Astronómico National (IGN), Madrid, Spain) BY(Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; ESO) BZ(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany) CA(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany) CB(Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany) CC(The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA) CD(Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA) CE(University of Wyoming, Laramie, USA) CF(Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA) CG(Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile) CH(The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA) CI(CalTech/IPAC, Pasadena, USA) CJ(ARI/ZAH University Heidelberg, Germany) CK(Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA)
Abstract:
A major advance in understanding the process of star formation will come from charting the connections between cold (molecular) gas and young stars on the scale of individual molecular clouds, HII regions, and star clusters. For the first time, the ESO facilities ALMA and MUSE, in combination with HST, offer the opportunity to survey the properties of these regions and clusters across a large sample of galaxies, capturing the range of diverse galactic environments found in the local universe. Guided by theoretical models and simulations, the PHANGS collaboration has begun an endeavour which aims to reveal the physical processes controlling the process of star formation in galaxies.
References:
Kennicutt, R. C. & Evans, N. J. 2012, ARA&A, 50, 531; Kreckel, K. et al. 2017, ApJ, 834, 174K Kreckel, K. et al. 2018, ApJ, 863L, 21K Sun, J. et al. 2018, ApJ, 860, 172S Utomo, D. et al. 2018, ApJ, 861L, 18U

Astronomical News

43-46 (PDF)
L. Ventura et al.
Total Solar Eclipse Over La Silla

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5152
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.177...43V
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Ventura, L.; Melo, C.; Christensen, L.L.; Lyubenova, M.; Comerón, F.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO) AD(ESO) AE(ESO)
Abstract:
On Tuesday 2 July 2019, in the late afternoon, a total solar eclipse took place over ESO’s La Silla Observatory; totality lasted 1 minute and 52 seconds. For this very special event, ESO decided to open the doors of the observatory to the public, providing over one thousand visitors with a unique vantage point from which to witness this spectacular natural phenomenon.
47-53 (PDF)
L.L. Christensen et al.
Science & Outreach at La Silla During the Total Solar Eclipse

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5153
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.177...47C
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Christensen, L.L.; Ávila, G.; Baouchi, W.A.; Boer, M.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Buil, C.; Castillo-Fraile, M.; Denoux, E.; Desnoux, V.; Elmore, D.; Eymar, L.; Fisher, R.F.; Guirao, C.; Klotz, A.; Klotz, A.N.; Lecubin, J.; Motl, K.A.; Pérez, D.; Pérez-Ayúcar, M.; van Reeven, W.v.; Regal, X.; Richaud, Y.; Sautile, R.; Santerne, A.; Wellington, R.; Wellington, T.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.A.; Zender, J.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(University of Colorado, Boulder, USA) AD(ARTEMIS-CNRS/OCA/UNS, Nice, France) AE(IRAP-Observatoire Midi Pyrénées, Toulouse, France) AF(Association AUDE, Paris, France) AG(Serco for ESA (European Space Agency), Madrid, Spain) AH(Observatoire Cor Caroli, Caussade, France; Association AUDE, Paris, France) AI(Association AUDE, Paris, France) AJ(Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Washington D.C., USA) AK(ARTEMIS-CNRS/OCA/UNS, Nice, France) AL(The PACA Project, Space Science Institute, Boulder, USA) AM(ESO) AN(IRAP-Observatoire Midi Pyrénées, Toulouse, France; Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France) AO(Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France) AP(OSU PYTHEAS, Marseille, France) AQ(The PACA Project, Space Science Institute, Boulder, USA) AR(GTlinkers, Madrid, Spain) AS(Aurora Technology for ESA (European Space Agency), Madrid, Spain) AT(Aurora Technology for ESA (European Space Agency), Madrid, Spain) AU(Observatoire de Haute Provence/OSU PYTHEAS, Saint Michel l’Observatoire, France) AV(Observatoire de Haute Provence/OSU PYTHEAS, Saint Michel l’Observatoire, France) AW(Observatoire de Haute Provence/OSU PYTHEAS, Saint Michel l’Observatoire, France) AX(Aix-Marseille University/CNRS/CNES/LAM, Marseille, France) AY(Barnard-Seyfert Astronomical Society, Nashville, USA) AZ(Barnard-Seyfert Astronomical Society, Nashville, USA; NASA Solar System Ambassador, Nashville, USA) BA(The PACA Project, Space Science Institute, Boulder, USA) BB(ESA (European Space Agency), Noordwijk, the Netherlands)
Abstract:
Total solar eclipses are rare phenomena, only occurring in a specific location once every 360 years on average. Historically, total solar eclipses have only been observed twice from large professional observatories, allowing specific science experiments to take place. On this occasion, ESO invited nearly 25 scientists, communicators and educators to observe and document the eclipse and benefit from La Silla’s clear skies and its infrastructure and resources. This article presents an overview of these various activities.
References:
Elmore, D. F. et al. 2000, SPIE, 4139, 370; van de Hulst, H. C. 1950, Bulletin of the Astronomical Institutes of the Netherlands, 11, 135; Klotz, A. et al. 2013, The Messenger, 151, 6; Lites, B. W. et al. 1999, Solar Physics, 190, 185; Quémerais, E. & Lamy, P. 2002, A&A, 393, 295; Zangrilli, L. et al. 2009, Solar Physics and Space Weather Instrumentation III, Proceedings of the SPIE, 7438, 74380W
54-55 (PDF)
M. Dennefeld et al.
Pointing the NTT at the Sun: Studying the Solar Corona During the Total Eclipse

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5154
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.177...54D
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Dennefeld, M.; Koutchmy, S.; Sèvre, F.; Fathivavsari, H.; Auchère, F.; Baudin, F.; Abdi, S.; Sinclaire, P.; Saviane, I.; Labraña, F.; Schmidtobreick, L.
AA(Institut d’astrophysique de Paris (IAP), Sorbonne Université, France) AB(Institut d’astrophysique de Paris (IAP), Sorbonne Université, France) AC(Institut d’astrophysique de Paris (IAP), Sorbonne Université, France) AD(Institut d’astrophysique de Paris (IAP), Sorbonne Université, France) AE(Institut d’astrophysique spatiale (IAS), Université Paris-Sud, France) AF(Institut d’astrophysique spatiale (IAS), Université Paris-Sud, France) AG(Institut d’astrophysique spatiale (IAS), Université Paris-Sud, France) AH(ESO) AI(ESO) AJ(ESO) AK(ESO)
References:
Wlérick, G. & Fehrenbach, C. 1963, The Solar Corona, Proceedings of IAU Symposium 16, ed. Evans, J. W., (New York), 199; Koutchmy, S. et al. 1994, A&A, 281, 249; Stellmacher, G. & Koutchmy, S. 1974, A&A, 35, 42
56-60 (PDF)
E. Sani et al.
Report on the ESO Workshop "KMOS@5: Star and Galaxy Formation in 3D — Challenges in KMOS 5th Year"

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5155
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.177...56S
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Sani, E.; Hilker, M.; Coccato, L.; Ramsay, S.; Evans, C.; Rodrigues, M.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Sharples, R.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO) AD(ESO) AE(ATC, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, UK) AF(University of Oxford, UK) AG(ESO) AH(Durham University, UK)
Abstract:
The K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph (KMOS) is one of the second-generation instruments at the VLT, and has been operating for five years. To celebrate this anniversary this workshop brought together astronomers to present scientific results from KMOS and complementary instruments. The topics ranged from star formation in the Galactic centre, to stellar populations in globular clusters, to galaxy formation and evolution at various redshifts, and feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). Another goal of the workshop was to assess the impact of KMOS on its core science goals and to develop new strategies and programmes, also in light of future integral field unit (IFU) instruments. About 60 researchers from the astronomical community and members of the Instrument Operations Team participated in the workshop and discussed the above topics; these discussions served to identify the highest priority improvements that could increase the scientific return of KMOS in the future.
References:
Beifiori, A. et al. 2017, ApJ, 846, 120 Feldmeier-Krauser, A. et al. 2015, A&A, 584, 2; Feldmeier-Krauser, A. et al. 2017, MNRAS, 464, 194; Ferraro, F. et al. 2018, ApJ, 860, 50; Freudling, W. et al. 2013, A&A, 559, 96; Förster-Schreiber, N. et al. 2019, ApJ, 875, 21; Harrison, C. et al. 2016, MNRAS, 456, 1195; Lang, P. et al. 2017, ApJ, 840, 92; Lanzoni, B. et al. 2018, ApJ, 856, 11; Madau, P. & Dickinson, M. 2014, ARA&A, 52, 415; Mason, C. et al. 2017, ApJ, 838, 14; Mason, C. et al. 2019, MNRAS, 485, 3947; Mendel, J. T. et al. 2015, ApJ, 804, 4; Stott, J. P. et al. 2016, MNRAS, 457, 1888; Swinbank, M. et al. 2017, Nature, 543, 318; Übler, H. et al. 2018, ApJ, 854, 24; Tiley, A. et al. 2019, MNRAS, 485, 934
61-63 (PDF)
J. Liske, V. Mainieri
Report on the ESO Workshop "Preparing for 4MOST — A Community Workshop Introducing ESO’s Next-Generation Spectroscopic Survey Facility"

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5156
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.177...61L
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Liske, J.; Mainieri, V.
AA(Universität Hamburg, Germany) AB(ESO)
Abstract:
The 4-metre Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope (4MOST) is a state-of-the-art, high-multiplex, fibre-fed, optical spectroscopic survey facility currently under construction for ESO’s 4-metre Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA). During the first five years of operation 4MOST will be used to execute a comprehensive programme of both Galactic and extragalactic Public Surveys, and 30% of the observing time during this period will be available to the community. The purpose of this workshop was to prepare the ESO community for this exciting scientific opportunity.
References:
de Jong, R. S. et al. 2019, The Messenger, 175, 3; Guiglion, G. et al. 2019, The Messenger, 175, 17; Walcher, C. J. et al. 2019, The Messenger, 175, 12
64-66 (PDF)
T. Mroczkowski et al.
Report on the ESO Workshop "ALMA Development Workshop"

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5157
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.177...64M
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Mroczkowski, T.; De Breuck, C.; Kemper, C.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO; Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics (ASIAA), Taipei, Taiwan)
Abstract:
The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is the most sensitive observatory spanning millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. To maintain this position, however, a vibrant and concerted development programme is necessary. Since each partner region in ALMA conducts its own development programme, we hosted an international workshop at ESO to promote further cross-regional discussion of our parallel development efforts. As we describe here, an overriding goal for this was to align our development activities with the goals of the 2030 ALMA development roadmap — a report recently produced by ALMA to provide guidance on what directions we want the ALMA observatory to go in, and how to get there.
References:
Laing, R., Mroczkowski, T. & Testi, L. 2016, The Messenger, 165, 47
67-69 (PDF)
A. Mérand, B. Leibundgut
Report on the ESO Workshop "The VLT in 2030"

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5158
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.177...67M
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Mérand, A.; Leibundgut, B.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO)
Abstract:
This four-day workshop offered a forum to discuss the scientific future of the VLT and VLTI. Overview talks of some of the main scientific topics for the next decade were followed by presentations on the most important facilities operating in 2030. Several instrument concepts and ideas were presented which would signifantly enhance the current VLT and VLTI capabilities. The workshop discussions are the basis for the plans for the VLT after 2025.
70-71 (PDF)
C. Yang
Fellows at ESO

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5159
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.177...70E
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Yang, C.
AA(ESO)
71-73 (PDF)
P. Jethwa, F. Oikonomou
External Fellows at ESO

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5160
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.177...71E
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Jethwa, P.; Oikonomou, F.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO)
74-74 (PDF)
D. Hofstadt
Lodewijk Woltjer (1930–2019)

DOI:
10.18727/0722-6691/5161
ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.177...74H
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
Hofstadt, D.
AA(ESO)
75-75 (PDF)
ESO
Personnel Movements

ADS BibCode:
2019Msngr.177...75E
Section:
Astronomical News
Author(s)/Affiliation(s):
ESO