Messenger No. 58 (December 1989)
Successful tests of adaptive optics.
Merkle, F.; Kern, P.; Léna, P.; Rigaut, F.; Fontanella, J. C.; Rousset, G.; Boyer, C.; Gaffard, J. P.; Jagourel, P.
AA(ESO) AB(Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, France) AC(Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, France) AD(Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, France) AE(Chatillon-Sous- Bagneux, France) AF(Chatillon-Sous- Bagneux, France) AG(LASERDOT, Marcoussis, France) AH(LASERDOT, Marcoussis, France) AI(LASERDOT, Marcoussis, France)
An old dream of ground-based astronomers has finally come true, thanks to the joint development of a new technique in astronomical imaging - called adaptive optics -, by ESO and Observatoire de Paris, ONERA (Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales), LASERDOT (formerly CGE) in France.
For additional references the following papers
- F. Merkle (1988), "Adaptive Optics Development
at ESO, Proceedings of the
ESO Conference on "Very Large Telescopes
and their Instrumentation", Garching
21 -24 March, 1988.
- P. Kern, P. Lena, G. Rousset, J.C. Fontanella,
F. Merkle, J.P. Gaffard (1988),
"Prototype of an adaptive optical system
for infrared astronomy", ref. as above.
- F. Merkle (1988), in SPlE Proceedings
101 3: "Optical Design Methods, Applications
and Large Optics", Hamburg, F. R.G;,
- P. Kern, P. Lena, J.C. Fontanella, G.
Rousset, F. Merkle, J.P. Gaffard (1989) in
SPlE Proceedings 114: Symposium on
"Aerospace Sensing", Orlando, FI., March
Astronomical observations with the NTT during commissioning.
It was with particular pleasure and emotion that I received the first astronomical images obtained with the NTT from Chile. As the NTT Project Manager it was satisfying to see that the work of many - both inside and outside ESO - had converged to produce an instrument whose performance was even better than expected. As an astronomer it was fascinating to see new details of objects which are being explored by many of us with other telescopes but at lower resolution
The first observations with the NTT.
The NlT was used for astronomical observations during two runs in May and August 1989. Both the telescope and the instrument (EFOSC2) worked remarkably well during both runs, so there was ample time for astronomical observations.
Spatially resolved images of the optical counterpart to Circinus X-1.
We have obtained high resolution images in which the optical counterpart to the X-ray binary Circinus X-1 is resolved. The images were obtained on 16 and 18 August 1989 using EFOSC2 in direct imaging mode on the ESO New Technology Telescope (NV. A 30 x 3 0 portion of each image, centred on Cir X-1 , is shown in Figure 1. The V and R images obtained on 16 August are reproduced in panels a and b, while the R and I images obtained on 18 August are reproduced in panels c and d. The integration time was 60 sec for all images; and all images have been bias corrected and flat fielded. The FWHM of the stellar profiles was 015 on 16 August and 019 on 18 August
The nebulosity around BL Lac objects.
Falomo, R.; Melnick, J.
AA(Astronomical Observatory, Padova, Italy) AB(ESO)
BL Lac objects (hereinafter BLL) are a class of active galactic nuclei which exhibit strong non thermal emission from radio to X-ray frequencies. Strong and rapid variability, together with optical polarization and very weak or absent emission/absorption features, are defining properties of the class.
Bowyer, S., Brodie, J., Clarke, J.T., and Henry,
J. P., 1984, Ap. J., 278, L 103.
Canizares, C. and Kruper, J., 1984, Ap. J.,
278, L 99.
Griffiths, R.E., Tapia, S., Briel, U., and
Chaisson, 1979, Ap. J., 234, 810.
Maraschi, L., Blades, J.C., Calachi, C., Tanzi,
E.G., and Treves, A., 1988, Ap. J., 333,
Treves, A. et al. 1989, Ap. J., 341, 733.
Possible transition objects discovered with the NTT.
Schwarz, H. E.
The 3.5-m Nl7 with EFOSC2 has been used to make images of about 280 planetary nebulae (PN) in two narrow passbands centred on Ha and [OIII] 5007. These data will be published in the near future in the form of a pictorial atlas. Since both [OIII] and Ha images were taken, a map of the high excitation gas can be made by dividing the frames; an example has been presented by (1).
(1) Schwarz, H.E., Melnick, J., 1989, in "From Miras to PN", in press.
(2) Manchado, A,, Pottasch, S,R,, 1989, Astron. Astrophys. 222, 219.
(3) Cappellaro, E., Turatto, M., Sabbadin, F., 1989, Astron. Astrophys. 218, 241.
Narrow-band imaging of M87 with the NTT.
Already during the current installation phase (August 1989), ESO's New Technology Telescope (NTT) presents an opportunity for useful science due to its large aperture and good tracking (no autoguider yet) on a site of excellent seeing. The greatest limitation is the lack of a field rotator which severely limits the maximum exposure times possible without obtaining unacceptably trailed images. Over most of the observable sky, this maximum exposure time is less than 5 minutes if one is to avoid more than 1 arcsecond of trailing one arcminute from the field centre.
Wilson, A.S., Baldwin, J.A., 1989, preprint.
Haniff, C.A., Wilson, A.S., and Ward, M.J.,
1988, Ap. J., 334, 104.
Wilson, A.S., Ward, M.J., and Haniff, C.A.,
1988, Ap. J., 334, 121.
NTT images of SN 1987A.
Gouiffes, G.; Wampler, E. J.; Baade, D.; Wang, L.-F.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO) AD(ESO)
The fine optical quality of the NTT telescope, together with the good dome design and excellent La Silla site permit routine observing in conditions of subarcsec seeing. We have used the NlT and an RCA CCD on August 27, 1989 UT to obtain new direct images of SN 1987A. These images have a sampling of 0.26 arcsec per 30 µm CCD pixel and are described below.
Crotts, A.P.S., Kunkel, W.E., McCarthy,
P.W. 1989, Ap. J. Letters, (LASP Preprint
D'Odorico, S. and Baade, D. 1989, The
Messenger, 56, 35.
Fransson, C., Cassatella, A., Gilmozzi, R.,
Kirshner, R.P., Panagia, N., Sonneborn, G.
and Wamsteker, W. 1989, Ap. J., 336,
Schwarz, H.E. 1987, in Proc. ESO Workshop
on SN 1987A, ed. I. J. Danziger, Garching,
Wamsteker, W., Gilmozzi, R., Cassatella, A.
and Panagia, N. 1987, IAU Circ., No.
Wampler, E.J. and Richichi, A. 1989, Astron.
Astrophys., 217, 31
Visitor facilities and user support at ESO-Garching.
Every year, nearly 200 Visiting Astronomers come to the ESO Headquarters in Garching in order to reduce their observations obtained at La Silla, to prepare such observations, or as of more recently also to do the observations under remote control. As this is a sizeable fraction of the total ESO users community, the equipment available for these purposes and the operational procedures followed perhaps do not require much of a description to the readers of the Messenger. On the other hand, a broad overview has not appeared before, and, more importantly, ESO's policy for the operation and usage of the visitor facilities has not been comprehensively described elsewhere. The following therefore tries to be reasonably complete in the latter area and purposely pays only little attention to technical information which, however, is detailed in various dedicated operating manuals (cf. below).
2nd ESO/OHP Summer School in Astrophysical Observations
Axial Support Prototypes for the VLT
Axial Support Prototypes for the VLT
The ESO Research Student Programme: Change of Deadline
This new programme was described in some detail in an earlier issue of the Messenger (55, p. 12). The corresponding brochure was announced in the last issue (57, p. 38), but for various reasons the printing was delayed until late October.
First Announcement of the 2nd ESO/ST-ECF Data Analysis Workshop
ESO exhibition opens in Copenhagen's new Tycho Brahe planetarium.
West, R. M.
After more than five years' hard work of preparations and construction, one of the largest and most modern planetaria in Europe has now opened its doors to the public. On October 31, 1989, the new "Tycho Brahe Planetarium" was inaugurated in Copenhagen, in the presence of the Danish head of state, H.M. Queen Mararethe II, and nearlv 300 other disting;ished guests, comfortably seated in reclining chairs under the tilted 23-metre dome. An ESO Exhibition had been set up in the new planetarium and was officially opened at the same time.
ESA Price Winners visit ESO
New ESO Scientific Preprints
A homogeneous bright quasar survey.
Barbieri, C.; Cristiani, S.; Andreani, P.; Clowes, R.; Gemmo, A.; Gouiffes, C.; Iovino, A.; La Franca, F.; Savage, A.; Vio, R.
AA(Department of Astronomy, Padova, Italy) AB(Department of Astronomy, Padova, Italy) AC(European Southern Observatory) AD(Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Great Britain) AE(Department of Astronomy, Padova, Italy) AF(Department of Astronomy, Padova, Italy) AG(Brera Observatory, Italy) AH(Department of Astronomy, Padova, Italy AND Institute of Radio Astronomy, Bologna, Italy) AI(UK Schmidt Telescope Unit, AAO, Australia) AJ(Department of Astronomy, Padova, Italy)
As extremely luminous objects visible to high redshifts, quasars have long offered the promise of directly exploring the distant Universe. Counting quasars, however boring and repetitive it may appear, allows one to address basis issues in Cosmology, such as: when did quasars form and how evolved the gravitational engine providing their extreme energies? How are quasars related to galaxies? When did galaxies form? What structure has the Universe at the largest scales? On what scale does the Cosmological Principle finally apply? Which models can explain plausibly the transition from the smooth Universe of the microwave background to the very inhomogeneous Universe of today?
1. Iovino, A., Shaver, P.A., 1988, Ap. J. 330,
2. Cristiani, S., Barbieri, C., Iovino, A., La
Franca, F., Nota, A., 1989, Astr. Ap.
Suppl. 77, 161.
3. Wampler, J., Ponz, D., 1985, Ap. J. 298,
4. Marshall, H.L., 1985, Ap. J. 289, 457.
5. Bennett,A.S., 1962, M.N.R.A.S.125,75.
6. Murdoch, H.S., Crawford, D. F., Jauncey,
D.L., 1973,Ap. J. 183, 1.
7. Cavaliere, A,, Giallongo, E., Vagnetti, F.,
1989, Astron. J. 97, 336.
8. Boyle, B.J., Fong, R., Shanks, T., Peterson,
9. Koo, D., Kron, R., 1988, Ap. J. 325, 92.
10. Weedman, D., 1986, Quasar Astronomy,
Cambridge Univ. press, p. 22.
11. De Lapparent et al., 1989, The
Messenger 55, 5.
12. Warren, S.J., Hewett, P.C., Irwin, M.J.,
1987, I.A.U. Symp. 124, 661.
13. Marano, B., Zamorani, G., Zitelli, V., 1988, M. N. R.A. S. 232, 11.
14. Marshall, H. L., et al., 1984, Ap. J. 283, 50.
15. Mitchell, K.J., Warnock, A,, Usher, P.D., 1984, Ap, J, 287, L3.
16. Schmidt, M., Green, R.F., 1983, Ap. J. 269, 352.
17. Clowes, R., et al., 1984, M. N. R.A. S. 207, 99
ESO's early history, 1953 - 1975. V. Earliest developments in Chile; 24 March 1966: the road on La Silla dedicated.
AA(Kapteyn Laboratory, Groningen, the Netherlands)
While - as described in the previous article - in Europe Directorate and Council established ESO's administrative basis, and the first telescopes were built or acquired under the guidance of the Instrumentation Committee, work in Chile proceeded equally energetically. Under the leadership of Andre Muller, since January 1, 1964 Superintendent for Chile, a great variety of tasks had to be taken up: building up staff for administration and construction, organizing office facilities, setting up temporary camps as basis for the activities on and around La Silla, learning to know the Chilean world of aovernment and Drovincial authorities-and of contractors, etc. A challenging but demanding assignment! For it is one thing to build up an organization in one's own country with its well-known legal structure and social traditions - but another one to do so in a foreign country with unfamiliar language, different customs and different rules.
Note: For lists of the meetings of ESO Committee
and Council see the tables in articles
I and IV.
EHA = ESO Historical Archives (see The
Messenger of December 1988).
FHA = Files Head of Administration at ESO
Heckmann Sterne = 0. Heckmann, Sterne,
Kosmos, Weltmodelle, Verlag Piper and
Co., Miinchen-Zurich, 1976.
[I] EHA-I.A. 2.13.
 Council Documents Chile-8, 12, 15, 16
in EHA-I.A. 2.14. and letters in EHA-I.A.
 Minutes Council Meeting 2-3 Dec. 1964
and ESO Basic Texts Section B 3.
 Cou. Doc. Chi-12 in EHA-I.A. 2.14.
 See ref. 4.
 Heckmann Sterne p. 298ff.
 See Muller's reports mentioned before.
 In EHA-I.A. 2.10.
 EHA-I.C. 3.2.
[l0] EHA-I.C. 3.8.
 Annual Report 1964.
 Lists of employees were at regular intervals
drawn up by the Administration in
Bergedorf for the FC. For instance, they
are found in doc. FC 32a and 32b for
the situation per April 1, 1965 and in
doc. FC 92 per Oct. 1, 1966; these
documents are part of the FHA.
 Cou. Doc. Chi-15 in EHA-I.A. 2.14; for
preparatory work also Cou. Doc. Chi-9,
10 and 11.
 EHA-I.A. 2.15.
The R Corona Australis Cloud
Second Extension of ESO Headquarters
V745 Sco - a new member of the elusive group of recurrent novae.
Duerbeck, H. W.
AA(ESO and Astronomisches Institut der Universität Münster, F. R. Germany)
Up to late July, 1989, the six novae which have shown repeated outbursts in the last 130 years, are: V394 CrA, T CrB, RS Oph, T Pyx, U Sco and (likely) V1017 Sgr. On July 30, William Liller, a regular visitor to La Silla and owner of a private observatory in Vina del Mar (a sea resort on the coast of Chile), discovered on a sky patrol film a 10^th-magnitude star that was not there the night before. Its position coincided, as was found after some re-examination of old photographic plates, within an arcsecond of the position of a nova that had flared up on May 10, 1937. This poorly known nova, V745 Sco, thus became the seventh known recurrent nova.
Photometry and high resolution spectroscopy of two southern T Tauri stars.
Chavarria, C.; Covino, E.; Franchini, M.; Stalio, R.; Terranegra, L.
AA(Instituto de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Puebla, Mexico AND Instituto de Astronomia, UNAM, Mexico, D. F., Mexico) AB(Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli, Italy) AC(Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Trieste, Italy) AD(Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Trieste, Trieste, Italy) AE(Instituto de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Puebla, Mexico)
In an attempt to determine rotational velocities, photometric rotational periods and possible correlations with chromospheric activity, a sample of southern T Tauri or suspected T Tauri stars was monitored in May 1989 with the CAT+CES 1.5-m and the 50-cm ESO telescopes at La Silla. Unfavourable weather conditions limited our original goals. Nevertheless, some interesting results were obtained. Here we report some preliminary results for two stars from our sample: T Cha and CoD - 33° 10685.
Bastian, U., Mundt, R.: 1979, Astron. Astrophys.
Suppl., 36, 57.
Bouvier, J., Bertout, C., Benz, W., and Mayor,
M.: 1986, Astron. Astrophys., 165, 110.
Finkenzeller, U., Basri, G.: 1985, The
Messenger, 42, 20.
Glass, I.S., Penston, M.V.: 1974, Mon. Not.
Roy. Astron. Soc., 167, 237.
Herbig, G.H.: 1977, Ap. J., 214, 747.
Herbig, G. H., Bell, K. R.: 1988, Lick Obs. Bull.
Mauder, H., Sosna, F.M.: 1975, I. B. V.S.,
Mundt, R.: 1980, Ap,. J., 280, 749.
Mundt, R., Bastian, U.: 1980, Astron. Astrophys.
Suppl. 39, 245.
Discovery of a low mass B[e] supergiant in the SMC.
Peculiar emission-line B supergiants are a group of early-type stars with the following typical characteristics: (a) strong Balmer emission lines frequently with P Cygni profiles, (b) permitted and forbidden lines of FeII, [FeII], [OI], etc. and (c) strong infrared excess possibly due to thermal radiation from circumstellar dust. They represent one of the two main groups of early-type emission line stars in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). The other group consists of the classical P Cygni stars and their hotter counterparts, Of-like objects. The S Dor variables, also called Hubble-Sandage variables, are the most extreme variables of the P Cygni and Of-like objects (Stahl et al., 1985). The B[e] supergiants are located in the HR diagram in the same region as S Dor variables and represent evolved evolutionary stages of the most luminous and presumably the most massive O stars (Zickgraf et al., 1986).
Beals, C. S.: 1950, Publ. Dominion Astrophys.
Obs. 9, 1.
Cowley, A.P., Hutchings, J.B.: 1978, Pub.
Astron. Soc. Pacific 90, 636.
Henden, A.A., Kaitchuk, R.H.: 1982, Astronomical
Photometry, New York, Van
Henize, K.G.: 1956, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 2,
Heydari-Malayeri, M.: 1989, Astron. Astrophys.
Humphreys, R.M., McElroy, D.B.: 1984, Astrophys.
J. 284, 565.
Jaschek, M., Jaschek, C., Andrillat, Y.: 1988,
Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 72, 505.
Lindsay, E. M.: 1961, Astrophys. J. 66, 169.
Maeder, A,, Meynet, G.: 1987, Astron. Astrophys.
Suppl. Ser. 76, 411.
Schmidt-Kaler, T. H.: 1982, in Landolt-Bornstein,
New Series Group IV, Vol. 2b, eds. K.
Schaifers and H. H. Voigt, Springer, Berlin.
Shore, S.N., Sanduleak, N., Allen, D.A.:
1987, Astron. Astrophys. 176, 59.
Slettebak, A,: 1986, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.
Stahl, O., Wolf, B., de Groot, M., Leitherer, C.:
1985, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 61,
Stahl, O., Wolf, B., Zickgraf, F.-J.: 1987, Astron.
Astrophys. 184, 193.
Strom, S.E., Strom, K.M., Yost, J.: 1972,
Astrophys. J. 173, 353.
Waters, L. B. F. M., Cote, J., Lamers,
H. J. G. L. M .: 1987, Astron. Astrophys. 185,
Whitcomb, S.E., Gatley, I., Hildebrand, R.H.,
Keene, J., Sellgren, K., Werner, M.W.: Astrophys.
J. 246, 416.
Wolf, B., Stahl, O., de Groot, M.J.H., Streken,
C.: 1981, Astron. Astrophys. 99, 351.
Zickgraf, F.-J., Wolf, B., Stahl, O., Leitherer,
C., Klare, G.: 1985, Astron. Astrophys.,
Zickgraf, F.-J., Wolf, B., Stahl, O., Leitherer,
C., Appenzeller, 1.: 1986, Astron. Astrophys.
Zickgraf, F.J., Wolf, B.: 1987, in Circumstellar
Matter (eds.) I. Appenzeller, C. Jordan,
Zickgraf, F.-J., Wolf, B., Stahl, O., Humphrey~,
R. M.: 1989, Astron. Astrophys.
CASPEC observations of the most metal-deficient main-sequence star currently known.
Nissen, P. E.
AA(Institute of Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Denmark)
The apparent absence of first generation stars with zero or negligible amounts of heavy elements is a longstanding problem in connection with theories of nucleosynthesis in stars and models of galactic chemical evolution. Despite extensive search on objectiveprism plates, only two stars are known to have a metal abundance less than 1/1000 of the solar metal abundance, i.e. [Fe/H] < -3.0. The first one is G64- 12, a main-sequence turnoff star, with [Fe/H] = -3.5 (Carney and Peterson 1981). The other one is CD -38°245, a red giant with [Fe/H] = -4.5 (Bessell and Norris 1984). Here I briefly report on some CASPEC observations of a mainsequence turnoff star having a similar low metal abundance as CD -38°245. Surprisingly, this new ultra-metal-deficient star is a double-lined spectroscopic binary.
Applegate, J. H., Hogan, C. J., Scherrer, R. J.:
1987, Phys. Rev. D 35, 1151.
Beers, T.C.,P reston, G.W., Shectman, S.A.:
1985, Astron. J. 90, 2089.
Bessell, M.S., Norris, J.: 1984, Astrophys. J.
Carney, B. W, Peterson, R.C.: 1981, Astrophys.
J. 245, 238.
Malaney, R.A., Fowler, W.A.: 1989, Astrophys.
J, 345, L5.
Schuster, W. J., Nissen, P. E.: 1989, Astron.
Astrophys. 222, 69.
The peculiar colour-magnitude diagrams of the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6553.
Barbuy, B.; Bica, E.; Ortolani, S.
AA(Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil) AB(Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) AC(Osservatorio Astronomico, Padova, Italy)
NGC 6553 = GLC 88 (R.A. = 18^h 05^m ll^s, DEC. = -25° 55'1; 1950.0) is a metal-rich globular cluster of low Galactic latitude (l = 5°.253, b = -3°.029) at a heliocentric distance of about 5.7 kpc (Webbink, 1985), in the direction of the Galactic centre. It shows the following interesting properties: (1) it is one of the most metal- rich galactic globular clusters (Morgan, 1959; van den Bergh, 1967; Bica and Pastoriza, 1983; Zinn and West, 1984); (2) it is a good example of an inner bulge globular cluster; (3) it shows a core with relatively dispersed, and therefore resolvable stars.
Armandroff, T. E. 1988, Astron. J. 96, 588.
Auriere, M., Ortolani, S. 1988, Astron. Astrophys.
Bica, E., Pastoriza, M. 1983, Astrophys. Spa.
Sci. 91, 99.
Buonnano, R., Corsi, C.E., Fusi Pecci, F.
1989, Astron. Astrophys., in press.
Fusi Pecci, F. 1989, in "Astrophysical Ages
and Dating Methods", 5th IAP Workshop,
eds. E. Vangioni-Flam, M. Casse, J. Audouze,
Ed. Frontieres, to appear.
Gratton, R., Ortolani, S. 1988, Astron. Astrophys.
Suppl. 73, 137.
Morgan, W. W. 1959, Astron. J. 64, 432.
Ortolani, S. 1988, Space Telescope Technical
Report, ST-ECF-ESO, Garching.
Ortolani, S., Barbuy, B., Bica, E. 1989, in
"Astrophysical Ages and Dating Methods",
5th IAP Workshop, eds. E. Vangioni-Flam,
M. Casse, J. Audouze, Ed. Frontieres, to
van den Bergh, S. 1967, Astron. J. 72, 70.
Webbink, R.F. 1985, in "Dynamics of Star
Clusters", eds. J. Good, P. Hut, Reidel,
Zinn, R., West, M.J. 1984, Astrophys. J.
Suppl. 55, 45.
On the theoretical ratio of some nebular lines.
Acker, A.; Köppen, J.; Samland, M.; Stenholm, B.
AA("Equipe Populations Stellaires", Observatoire de Strasbourg, France) AB(Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Heidelberg, F. R. Germany) AC(Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Heidelberg, F. R. Germany) AD(Lund Observatory, Sweden)
As pointed out by Rosa (1985) and Wampler (1985), the response of the IDS system seems to show a dependence on the value of the input intensity. Peimbert and Torres-Peimbert (1987) give a review of different determinations of the factor K in the relation between the flux F and the instrumental signal S = F^(1+K). The value of K seems to be small (0.03) if the emission lines appear over a strong continuum - which is rare for planetary nebulae -, and K is higher (0.08) for lines over a weak continuum. The value adopted by Peimbert and Torres-Peim bert is 0.07.
Acker, A,, Koppen, J., Stenholm, B., Jasniewicz,
G.: 1989, Astron. Astrophys.
Suppl. in press.
Acker, A., Stenholm, B.: 1987, The
Messenger 48, p. 16.
Peimbert, M., Torres-Peimbert, S.: 1987,
Rev. Mex. Astron. 14, 540.
Rosa, M.: 1985, The Messenger, 38, p. 15.
Wampler, E.J.: 1985, The Messenger, 41,
EFOSC observations of the inner echo around SN 1987A.
Paresce, F.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F.
AA(Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, and Astrophysics Division, Space Science Department of ESA) AB(Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, and Astrophysics Division, Space Science Department of ESA) AC(Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, and Astrophysics Division, Space Science Department of ESA)
Time varying light echoes around bright supernovae have been known since their first detailed observation in 1901 -1 902 by Ritchey, Kapteyn and Perrine around Nova Persei 1901 (GK Per) and the first comprehensive theoretical model put forth by Couderc in 1939.
'Deep' rotation curves of edge-on S0 galaxies.
Cappellaro, E.; Capaccioli, M.; Held, E. V.
AA(Ossevatorio Astronomico, Padova, Italy) AB(Ossevatorio Astronomico, Padova, Italy) AC(Osservatorio Astronomico, Bologna, Italy)
We present a sample of "deep" rotation and velocity dispersion curves from stellar (absorption) spectra obtained at La Silla in February 1989. These record observations are part of a longterm project conceived to investigate how the dynamical behaviour of galactic disks depends on the bulge-to-disk light ratio. and to unravel the three-dimensional shapes of dark haloes in earlytype disk galaxies (for a review of this matter, see Bender et al., 1989, Capaccioli and Caon, 1989, and Capaccioli and Longo, 1989). The targets: NGC 2310, NGC 3115, and NGC 4179, are edge-on S0 galaxies, chosen among the few such objects with fairly large angular sizes (distances <= 25 Mpc) in order to minimize the resolution problems (see Fig. 1).
Bender, R., 1989, Astron. Astrophys., in
Bender, R., Capaccioli, M., Macchetto, F.,
and Nieto, J.-L., 1989, The Messenger,
Capaccioli, M., 1979, in Photometry, Kinematics,
and Dynamics of Galaxies (Austin,
Texas), ed. D.S. Evans, Texas Univ. Press:
Austin, p. 165.
Capaccioli, M., and Caon, N., 1989, in
IS' ESO/ST-ECF Data Analysis Workshop
(Garching, FRG), e d ~ . P.J. Grosb0l,
F. Murtagh and R.H. Warmels,
Capaccioli, M., and Longo, G., 1989, in Windows
on Galaxies (Erice, Italy), e d ~ . J.
Gallagher and G. Fabbiano, Kluwer Acad.
Publ.: Dordrecht, in press.
Capaccioli, M., Held, E.V., and Nieto, J.-L., 1987, Astron. J., 94, 1519.
Illingworth, G., and Schechter, P. L., 1982, Astron. J., 256, 481.
Rubin, V.C., Peterson, C.J., and Ford Jr., W. KI., 1980, Astron. J., 239, 50.
International Portrait Catalogue
One of the last days in September this year, I went to Berlin (West) to give a talk at the Wilhelm Foerster Volkssternwarte (People's observatory), on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of its "Bamberg" refractor.
The Efficiency of OPTOPUS
An accurate wavelength calibration of CCD CASPEC echelle spectra.
Hensberge, H.; Verschueren, W.
AA(Koninklijke Sterrenwacht van Belgie, Brussels, Belgium) AB(Theoretical Mechanics and Astrophysics, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Belgium)
In December 1986 and January 1988 we obtained with CASPEC at the 3.6-m telescope spectra of early-type member stars of the young stellar cluster NGC 2244 with the main purpose of determining accurate radial velocities. We focused our attention on theo blue wavelength region (3700-4700 A) and used CCD # 3 in combination with the 52 I/mm echelle grating.
D'Odorico, S., Ponz, D.: 1984, The
Messenger 37, 24.
Goodrich, R.W., Veilleux, S.: 1988, Publ. Astron.
Soc. Pacific 100, 1572.
Norlen, G.: 1973, Physica Scripta 8, 249.
Palmer, B. A,, Engleman, R. Jr.: 1983, Atlas of
the Thorium Spectrum, Los Alamos National
Laboratory, ed. H. Sinoradzky.
Jacques Beckers Elected to Dutch and Norwegian Academies
Pushing CASPEC to the limit.
Wampler, E. J.
Recent CASPEC users will have noticed that there is a continuing programme to upgrade the capabilities of the spectrograph. Together with electromechanical modifications of the spectrograph itself, there have been changes in the data reduction procedures. In addition, there is now substantially more experience with the biases that ESO reduction techniques introduce into the data. These improvements and the increased understanding of the critical processes can lead to a substantial increase in the limiting magnitude of CASPEC over that obtained in the past. Here I want to discuss some of the important choices to be made if good signal-to-noise (SIN) ratios, together with high resolution, is needed for faint objects. A general description of CASPEC has been given by D'Odorico et al. (1 983).
Allen, C. W. 1964, Astrophysical Quantities
(London: The Athlone Press), p. 144.
Dick, J., Jenkins, C. and Ziabicki, J. 1989,
Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac., 101, 684.
D'Odorico, S., Enard, D., Lizon, J.L., Ljung,
B., Nees, W., Ponz, D., Raffi, G. and Tanne,
J. F. 1983, The Messenger, 33, 2.
Leach, R. W. 1988, Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac.,
More light through the fibre: an upgrading of the link 3.6 m - CES.
D'Odorico, S.; Avila, G.; Molaro, P.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO)
Different types of commercial fibre optics find useful application in modern astronomical instruments. ESO has been particularly interested in the use of fibres as "light pipes" to feed spectrographs at a distance from the telescope. This is the case of the Coude Echelle Spectrograph (CES) fed through a 35 m long fibre from the Cassegrain focus of the 3.6-m telescope, alternatively to the standard use with the CAT telescope. The gain one can achieve by using the larger telescope can be as large as two magnitudes over a wide spectral range and this difference opens the way to an entirely new class of observations that at the CAT would be photon limited. Obviously, would-be observers have to be aware that when the link operates, both the CAT and the 3.6-m need to be "booked". As a consequence, the OPC checks with special care whether the use of the larger collecting area is indeed absolutely necessary. A very convincing case and an outstanding scientific justification are a must for these programmes.
A programme to simulate observations with EFOSC2 and EMMI.
D'Odorico, S.; Prieur, J.-L.; Rupprecht, G.
AA(ESO) AB(ESO) AC(ESO)
Every astronomer appreciates the importance of preparing accurately an observing run to optimize the use of the time assigned at the telescope. The preparation implies, among other things, the selection of the observing mode which is best suited to the needs of the scientific programme and the computation of the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) one can achieve in a given observing time on the selected targets.
ESO Image Processing Group: MIDAS Memo
The FIT package is now available in the portable MlDAS for both VMS and UNIX systems. It was upgraded in a number of areas. Some deficiencies of the old VMS version were corrected, in particular the methods applied to problems with constraints. The implementation is still using some NAG library routines.
Manuel Cartes V. (1952-1989)
The departure of Manuel Cartes on September 19th was received with a profound impact at La Silla. Manuel was highly esteemed and appreciated as a colleague and a friend.