Tools and Tips

VISIR Reference Papers

Publications based on data obtained with the VISIR instrument should quote the following reference paper: Lagage, P. O. et al. 2004, The Messenger 117, 12.

A description of the VISIR upgrade can be found in Käufl, H.U, et al. 2015, The Messenger 159, 15.

Calibrators for VISIR

The most commonly used calibration sources in the mid-infrared are the ones characterised by Cohen et al. in a series of papers starting in 1992: "Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared". A summary of these papers including a spectro-photometric catalogue of 422 stars scattered over the entire sky can be found on their Paper X (Cohen et al. 1999, AJ 117, 1864). This catalogue is included in the VISIR pipeline and the basis of the sensitivity determination for VISIR. Nevertheless these templates should be used with caution, because many of them have not been verified observationally.

Generic tools and information

Other ground-based mid-infrared instruments

For reference, below an incomplete list of other historical or future ground-based mid-infrared instruments:

GTC CanariCAM: Mid IR imager, spectroscopic, polarimetric, coronographic options at the GTC (decommissioned 2021).
KECK-Observatory  LWS: Long wavelength spectrometer (decommissioned).
LWIRC: Long wavelength infrared camera.
Subaru  COMICS: Cooled mid infrared camera and spectrograph (retired).
GEMINI-North  Michelle: Mid IR echelle spectrograph and imager (retired since 2011).
GEMINI-South  OSCIR (mid IR imager/spectrometer, retired since 2002)
T-RECS (Mid IR Imager/Spectrometer for Gemini South, retired since 2012)
TIMMI2  TIMMI2: Mid IR imager with spectroscopic and polarimetric options at the ESO 3.6m (decommissioned 2006)
MMT  BLINC / MIRAC: Mid-Infrared Array Camera and Bracewell Infrared Nulling Cryostat (no longer available)
LBT  LBTI: Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) consisting of LMIRcam (1.5 to 5.1µm) and NOMIC (8 to 14µm)
ELT  METIS: Mid-infrared ELT Imager and Spectrograph (project for the Extremely Large Telescope)